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C. Michael Bourget

commonly cited LED advantages are efficiency and lifetime. The newest high-power LEDs are more efficient (radiated power output divided by electrical power input) than incandescent and fluorescent lamps and are roughly equivalent to high-intensity discharge

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Shimon Meir, Sonia Philosoph-Hadas, Giora Zauberman, Yoram Fuchs, Miriam Akerman, and Nehemia Aharoni

Abbreviations: FCs, fluorescent compounds. Contribution from the Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel, no. 3099-E, 1990 series. Supported by grant no. US-1525-88 from BARD, The United States-Israel Binational

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Benard Yada, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Bramwell Wanjala, Dong-Jin Kim, Robert A. Skilton, Agnes Alajo, and Robert O.M. Mwanga

( Hwang et al., 2002 ; McGregor et al., 2001 ). With the fluorescently labeled microsatellite primers and sequencing on automated sequencers such as the ABI 3730 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA), multiplexing of many polymerase chain reaction (PCR

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Toshio Shibuya, Ryosuke Endo, Yuki Kitamura, Yoshiaki Kitaya, and Nobuaki Hayashi

fluorescent lamps used in these systems have less shoot elongation than those grown under natural light ( Ohyama et al., 2003 ). The reduced shoot elongation seems to be the result of the high red to far-red ratios (R:FR) of typical commercial fluorescent

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Shimon Meir, Sonia Philosoph-Hadas, and Nehemia Aharoni

Abbreviations: BHT, butylated hydroxy toluene; FCs, fluorescent compounds; MDA, malondialdehyde; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; TBA, thiobarbituric acid. Contribution from the Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan

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Toshio Shibuya, Kaori Itagaki, Motoaki Tojo, Ryosuke Endo, and Yoshiaki Kitaya

., 2002 ; Khanam et al., 2005 ; Rahman et al., 2002 ; Schuerger and Brown, 1997 ; Wang et al., 2010 ). Here, we focused on the R:FR of typical commercial fluorescent lamps commonly used in CTPS. Cucumber seedlings grown under fluorescent lamps with a

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A.G. Taylor, D.B. Churchill, S.S. Lee, D.M. Bilsland, and T.M. Cooper

Color sorting was performed to upgrade seed quality by removal of fluorescent coated seeds. The fluorescent coating was attributed to sinapine leakage from nonviable seeds. Nine seedlots, three seedlots each of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group), broccoli, and cauliflower (B. oleracea L. Botrytis group) were custom coated. Seed samples were pretreated before coating with or without 1.0% NaOCl for 10 minutes to enhance leakage. All samples revealed a percentage of seeds with fluorescence. The light emission from selected fluorescent and nonfluorescent coated seeds was quantified by fiber-optic spectrophotometry. Fluorescence was expressed from 400 to 560 nm, with peak emission being from 430 to 450 nm. These data confirmed our visual interpretation of blue-green fluorescence. The ratio of light emission from fluorescent compared to nonfluorescent coated seeds ranged from 4.5 to 7.0 for all samples and averaged 5.7. An ultraviolet (UV) color sorter was employed to separate fluorescent (reject) from nonfluorescent (accept) coated seeds. The percentage of nonfluorescent coated seeds (averaged over seedlot and NaOCl pretreatment) before and after sorting was 89.5% and 95.9%, respectively. Therefore, color sorting was able to remove a high percentage of fluorescent coated seeds with an average loss (rejection of nonfluorescent coated seeds) of 6%. An increase in the percent germination was recorded in eight of the nine seedlots following color sorting, and the greatest improvement was obtained with seedlots of medium quality. Germination of three medium quality lots was increased by 10 to 15 percentage points. The average increase in germination with or without NaOCl pretreatment was 8.2 and 5.5 percentage points, respectively. In conclusion, the germination of Brassica seedlots could be improved by separating (removing) fluorescent from nonfluorescent coated seeds. UV color sorting technology was employed to demonstrate that seed conditioning could be conducted on a commercial basis to upgrade seed quality.

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Heather A. Hatt Graham and Dennis R. Decoteau

The influence of end-of-day (EOD), supplemental, cool-white fluorescent light on pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Keystone Resistant Giant No. 3) seedling growth and fruit production after transplanting to the field was investigated. Seedlings were exposed to this light source, which is high in the red wavebands, from one (1988) or two bulbs (1989) for 1 hour before the end of the natural photoperiod. Each year control plants were exposed to ambient light and received no supplemental fluorescent light. Before transplanting to the field, seedlings exposed to two bulbs were shorter and had smaller leaves than plants in the control treatment. Supplemental fluorescent light treatment, regardless of number of bulbs, reduced plant height, leaf area, fruit weight, and fruit count at the first harvest. Total fruit production was not affected by supplemental light, suggesting no residual effect of the light treatment during transplant production on total subsequent fruit production.

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James J. Polashock and Nicholi Vorsa

DNA fingerprinting has been useful for genotypic classification of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methodologies including randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers are relatively easy to use, and inexpensive as compared to other methods. However, RAPD markers have some limitations including seamless interlaboratory transferability and susceptibility to certain types of error. An alternative method, sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs), was developed for cranberry germplasm analysis. Nine primer sets were designed from RAPD-identified polymorphic markers for use in two multiplex PCR reactions. These primer sets generated 38 markers across a cranberry germplasm collection. Estimates of genetic relatedness deduced from employment of the RAPD and SCAR methods were compared among 27 randomly chosen cranberry germplasm accessions. Although both methods produced comparable results above 0.90 coefficient of similarity, branches below this level exhibited variation in clustering. SCAR and RAPD markers can be employed for identifying closely related genotypes. However, the inferences of more distant genetic relationships are less certain. SCAR marker reactions provided more polymorphic markers on a per reaction basis than RAPD marker reactions and as such more readily separated closely related progeny. When SCAR primers were fluorescent dye-labeled for computerized detection and data collection, reduced marker intensity relative to unlabeled reactions was one problem encountered.

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Sudheer Beedanagari* and Patrick Conner

Pecan, [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch], is a member of Juglandaceae family and is one of the most important nut crops produced in the United States. The objective of this study is to generate the first genetic linkage maps for pecan. Maps were constructed for the cultivars `Elliot' and `Pawnee' using the double pseudo-testcross mapping method whereby a separate linkage map is made for each parent using markers heterozygous in that parent. First generation maps consisted primarily of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. We have now used fluorescently labeled amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to produce more complete maps. In the development of the AFLP markers, 64 primer combinations were originally screened to find the most informative combinations. Ten primer combinations were then chosen to produce markers for the maps. The maps currently consist of approximately 100 RAPD and 100 AFLP markers on each cultivar map. `Pawnee' is a high quality commercial pecan cultivar with a very early ripening date. `Elliot' possesses high levels of resistance to pecan scab, caused by the fungus Cladosporium caryigenum. The maps will be used to find markers linked to scab resistance genes and other traits of interest to the breeding program.