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Madhulika Sagaram and Jacqueline K. Burns

consequence of starch accumulation in citrus leaves affected by HLB may be an impact on photosynthesis. Light energy absorbed by chlorophyll molecules can be used to drive photosynthesis, dissipated as heat, or re-emitted as light (chlorophyll fluorescence

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María José Gómez-Bellot, Pedro Antonio Nortes, María Fernanda Ortuño, María Jesús Sánchez-Blanco, Karoline Santos Gonçalves, and Sebastián Bañón

, fluorescence, and color parameters in leaves. On 17 Apr. 2012, 22 weeks after beginning the treatments, the chlorophyll content was assayed according to Inskeep and Bloom (1985) in the leaves of four plants per treatment. The extraction was made from 50 mg of

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D. Michael Glenn

. Chlorophyll fluorescence and the photochemistry of photosystem II (PSII) can be imaged using cameras, sophisticated data capture techniques, and synchronized light sources ( Baker, 2008 ). Both baseline chlorophyll fluorescence and the Fv/Fm can be imaged and

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María A. Equiza and David A. Francko

well as labor-intensive and time-consuming. More recently, chlorophyll fluorescence analysis has been used to evaluate plant responses to different environmental stresses ( Baker and Rosenqvist, 2004 ; Maxwell and Johnson, 2000 ). Chlorophyll

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David Obenland, Dennis Margosan, Joseph L. Smilanick, and Bruce Mackey

advantage of the fact that incipient decay lesions caused by the green mold or blue mold pathogens ( Penicillium digitatum or Penicillium italicum , respectively), and other severely damaged areas on the fruit display a bright yellow fluorescence in the

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Steven J. McArtney, John D. Obermiller, and Consuelo Arellano

peach have not been described. Photochemistry, chlorophyll fluorescence, and heat dissipation represent three competing de-excitation pathways for the light energy absorbed by chlorophyll in plant leaves ( Maxwell and Johnson, 2000 ). A reduction in the

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David Obenland, Dennis Margosan, Sue Collin, James Sievert, Kent Fjeld, Mary Lu Arpaia, James Thompson, and David Slaughter

fruit) to evaluate the use of peel fluorescence to detect freeze-damaged navel oranges. Although the tests showed peel fluorescence to be a rapid, nondestructive method of classifying navel oranges as damaged or not damaged and well suited for use as an

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Keun H. Cho, Joo Young Kim, Maria I. Alvarez, Veronica Y. Laux, Lauren K. Valad, Joshua M. Tester, Thomas A. Colquhoun, and David G. Clark

( Tanaka et al., 2008 ). The human eye can also sense the fluorescence emission physiologically generated from a chemical energy exchange process. In this process, shorter-wavelength photons are absorbed by a molecule (excitation), and longer wavelength

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Julián Miralles-Crespo, Juan Antonio Martínez-López, José Antonio Franco-Leemhuis, and Sebastián Bañón-Arias

excitation pressure may occur as a consequence of a reduction in PSII antenna size ( Huner et al., 1998 ). These mechanisms avoid damage to photosystems but result in a decrease in photosynthesis ( D'Ambrosio et al., 2006 ). Hence, chlorophyll fluorescence is

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Marc W. van Iersel, Geoffrey Weaver, Michael T. Martin, Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi, Erico Mattos, and Mark Haidekker

fluorescence. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements can be used to quickly and reliably determine Φ PSII ( Maxwell and Johnson, 2000 ). Generally, a decrease in Φ PSII indicates that either plants dissipate an increasing fraction of the absorbed light energy