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Jayesh B. Samtani, J. Ben Weber and Steven A. Fennimore

-fumigated ( Fennimore et al., 2005 ). Both flumioxazin and oxyfluorfen herbicides are registered for strawberry production in California, and each product was used on over 2000 ha of strawberry in 2010 ( California Department of Pesticide Regulation, 2012 ; Daugovish

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Amit J. Jhala, Analiza H.M. Ramirez and Megh Singh

( Spergula arvensis ) in potato. Flumioxazin (Chateau®; Valent USA Corp., Walnut Creek, CA) is an N-phenylphtalimide herbicide that is registered in several states of the United States for weed control in numerous crops and non-cropland situations ( Valent

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Robert J. Richardson and Bernard H. Zandstra

of weed free area around monterey pine trees. Despite the importance of weed control for intensive silviculture, few herbicides are developed and registered for these applications ( Woeste et al., 2005 ). Flumioxazin is an N -phenylphthalimide

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Bernard H. Zandstra, Sylvia Morse, Rodney V. Tocco and Jarrod J. Morrice

in Michigan are treated with one or more PS II inhibitors each year ( Zandstra, 2011 ). Several other preemergence herbicides have been registered for asparagus in recent years, including flumioxazin, halosulfuron, S -metolachlor, mesotrione

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Michele M. Bigger*, Hannah M. Mathers, Jennifer A. Pope and Luke T. Case

The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent and duration of efficacy and phytotoxicity of two new formulations of dichlobenil (Casoron 50WP and Casoron CS), applied alone or onto two bark mulches, pine nuggets or shredded hardwood. The herbicide treated bark was compared to a control (weedy check), direct sprays of the herbicides and mulch alone. Three granular preemergent herbicides, dichlobenil (Casoron 4G) and two formulation of flumioxazin (Broadstar 0.17G, VC1351, and VC1453) were also evaluated for a total of 12 treatments. The trial started on May 23, 2003. Visual ratings and dry weights were evaluated for efficacy at 4, 8 and 16 weeks after treatment (WAT) and phytotoxicity 2, 4, 8, and 16 WAT. Ratings of efficacy were based on a 1-10 scale where, 0 represents no control, 10 represents complete control. Visual rating scores of 1 (no injury) to 10 (complete kill) were used for phytotoxicity on Salvia May Night. The two most efficacious treatments are Casoron CS as a directed spray (7.9) and treated on pine nuggets (9.0). The hardwood bark with Casoron CS also was providing an efficacy rating of 7.75 in the analyses of combined dates 4 and 8 WAT. The weed control provided by the untreated hardwood bark and pine nuggets was not significantly different from the control. Four treatments—Casoron CS and 4G, Casoron CS on pine, and CS on hardwood—provided ratings of 3 and above for phytotoxicity, in the analyses of combined dates 2, 4, 8, and 16 WAT. Although the Casoron CS was the second most efficacious treatment it had a phytotoxicity rating of 9.25 over combined dates. The CS on pine, however, had a significantly reduced phytotoxicity rating (3.5) and superior efficacy.

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Deborah Willard and Harlene Hatterman Valenti

landscape fabric (The Tessman Co., Fargo, ND)] and two herbicide treatments (glyphosate at 0.75 lb/acre plus oryzalin at 2 lb/acre, and linuron at 1.7 lb/acre in year 1 followed in by flumioxazin at 1 oz/acre in year 2). A control group that received hand

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Jason C. Fausey

The liverwort, marchantia (Marchantia polymorpha), and silver thread moss (Bryum argenteum) are two highly invasive and difficult to control pests in containerized ornamentals. Container trials were conducted evaluating marchantia and silve r thread moss control with preemergence and postemergence applications of chlorothalonil, captan, ammonium chlorides, hydrogen dioxide, flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, pelargonic acid, acetic acid (vinegar), copper sulfate, cinnamaldehyde, prodiamine, and oxadiazon. Flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, pelargonic acid, acetic acid, and oxadiazon provided acceptable preemergence and/or postemergence marchantia and silver thread moss control; however, no product provided acceptable control of these weeds at all evaluations. Under controlled environmental conditions marchantia and silver thread moss were controlled with flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, pelargonic acid, acetic acid, and oxadiazon. In addition to providing postemergence control of these weeds, flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, and oxidiazon also had residual activity when applied to potting media. However, the length and effectiveness of the preemergence control with flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, and oxadiazon was dependant upon formulation. In a separate study comparing granular and sprayable formulations of flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen, and oxidiazon, results indicated control of established marchantia and silver thread moss was greater with sprayable formulations when compared with granular formulations. Similarly, sprayable formulations of these active ingredients enhanced residual marchantia and silver thread moss control. The granular and sprayable formulations of flumioxazin provided greater preemergence and postemergence control of marchantia and silver thread moss when compared with granular or sprayable formulations of oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon, and of the products evaluated, displayed the greatest level of activity against these weeds.

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Linglong Wei, Jarrod J. Morrice, Rodney V. Tocco and Bernard H. Zandstra

/acre flumioxazin (SureGuard 51 WG; Valent USA, Walnut Creek, CA) plus 0.25% NIS; 4 lb/acre simazine (Princep Caliber 90; Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC) plus 3 lb/acre oryzalin (Surflan 4 AS; United Phosphorus Inc., Trenton, NJ) plus 1 lb/acre paraquat

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Grant R. Manning and Steven A. Fennimore

Methyl bromide has been the foundation of chemical weed control in strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) in California for over 40 years. The impending phaseout of methyl bromide may leave strawberry producers dependent on less efficacious alternative fumigants for weed control. The use of herbicides to supplement fumigants is a potential weed control strategy for strawberry. A 2-year field study was conducted in California to evaluate 10 herbicides as possible supplements for methyl bromide alternative fumigants. Herbicides were applied immediately after transplanting (immediate posttransplant), and 3 weeks after transplanting (delayed posttransplant). Napropamide applied immediate posttransplant was included as a commercial standard. Immediate posttransplant treatments that were safe in strawberry include carfentrazone at 0.075 and 0.15 lb/acre (0.084 and 0.168 kg·ha-1), flumioxazin at 0.063 lb/acre (0.071 kg·ha-1) and sulfentrazone at 0.175 and 0.25 lb/acre (0.196 and 0.28 kg·ha-1). Triflusulfuron at 0.016 lb/acre (0.017 kg·ha-1) was the only delayed posttransplant treatment with acceptable selectivity. Among the selective herbicides applied immediate posttransplant, flumioxazin and napropamide provided the most consistent control of bur clover (Medicago polymorpha) and shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Triflusulfuron applied delayed posttransplant did not significantly reduce bur clover densities, but did reduce shepherd's purse densities.

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M.J. Haar, S.A. Fennimore, M.E. McGiffen, W.T. Lanini and C.E. Bell

In an effort to identify new herbicides for vegetables crops, broccoli (Brassica oleracea) cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), carrot (Daucus carota), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa), bulb onion (Allium cepa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were evaluated in the field for tolerance to eight herbicides. The following herbicides and rates, expressed in a.i. lb/acre, were applied preemergence: carfentrazone, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2; flufenacet, 0.525; flumioxazin, 0.063, 0.125 and 0.25; halosulfuron, 0.032 and 0.047; isoxaben, 0.25 and 0.50; rimsulfuron, 0.016 and 0.031; SAN 582, 0.94 and 1.20 and sulfentrazone, 0.15 and 0.25 (1.000 lb/acre = 1.1208 kg·ha-1). Tolerance was evaluated by measuring crop stand, injury and biomass. Several leads for new vegetable herbicides were identified. Lettuce demonstrated tolerance to carfentrazone at 0.05 and 0.10 lb/acre. Cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of halosulfuron at 0.032 and 0.047 lb/acre. Broccoli, cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of SAN 582 at 0.94 lb/acre. Broccoli and carrot were tolerant of sulfentrazone at 0.15 lb/acre.