major contribution by a number of scientists ( Bonhomme, 2000 ; Galán et al., 2001 ). In reality, several studies were conducted to determine the relationships between climate and flowering phenomena in different species ( Pellizzaro et al., 1996 ) to
Fabio Orlandi, Carlo Sgromo, Tommaso Bonofiglio, Luigia Ruga, Bruno Romano and Marco Fornaciari
Hai-Fang Yang, Hye-Ji Kim, Hou-Bin Chen, Jillur Rahman, Xing-Yu Lu and Bi-Yan Zhou
Litchi ( Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is an evergreen fruit tree widely cultivated in southeast Asia. However, unreliable flowering is a serious problem in the litchi industry. Litchi flowering is induced by low temperatures and enhanced by drought in
Emma Bradford, James F. Hancock and Ryan M. Warner
Strawberry cultivars traditionally have been classified into photoperiodic response groups for flowering. June bearers are defined as facultative short-day (SD) plants ( Darrow, 1936 ), everbearers are classified as long-day plants (LD) ( Darrow
Emilio Nicolás, Trinitario Ferrandez, José Salvador Rubio, Juan José Alarcón and Ma Jesús Sánchez-Blanco
conditions. For that, changes in growth, water relations, and flowering characteristics were determined. Materials and Methods Plant material and experimental site. Rosmarinus officinalis L. (native of the province of Murcia, southeast Spain
Scott N. White, Nathan S. Boyd and Rene C. Van Acker
to promote vegetative growth in the first, or non-bearing, year. Flowering, fruit development, and harvest occur in the second, or bearing, year. Growth and development in the non-bearing year consists of ramet emergence from underground rhizomes and
Bruce W. Wood
-to-year variation in pistillate flowering, and subsequent cropload, is termed AB. Although AB-linked variation in pistillate flowering likely increases individual fitness in natural habitats, it is also a major impediment to greater horticultural domestication and
Samuel Salazar-García, Elizabeth M. Lord and Carol J. Lovatt
The developmental stage at which the shoot primary axis meristem (PAM) of the `Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is committed to flowering was determined. Three-year-old trees were subjected to low-temperature (LT) treatments at 10/7 °C day/night with a 10-h photoperiod for 1 to 4 weeks followed by 25/20 °C day/night at the same photoperiod. Before LT treatment, apical buds of mature vegetative shoots consisted of a convex PAM with two lateral secondary axis inflorescence meristems lacking apical bracts each associated with an inflorescence bract. Apical buds did not change anatomically during LT treatment. However, the 3- and 4-week LT treatments resulted in inflorescences at 17% and 83% of apical buds, respectively. Trees receiving 2 weeks or less LT, including controls maintained at 25/20 °C, produced only vegetative shoots. Apical buds of 2-year-old trees receiving 3 weeks at 10/7 °C plus 1 week at 20/15 °C produced 100% inflorescences. GA3(100 mg·L-1) applied to buds 2 or 4 weeks after initiation of this LT treatment did not reduce the number of inflorescences that developed. `Hass' avocado apical buds were fully committed to flowering after 4 weeks of LT, but were not distinguishable anatomically from those that were not committed to flowering.
D.M. Yeh and H.F. Lin
Identification of heat-tolerant chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandifolia (Ramat.) Kitamura] genotypes for commercial production in hot areas of the world is desirable. The extent to which electrolyte leakage from chrysanthemum leaf discs, measured using a test for cell membrane thermostability (CMT), could be related to the delay in flowering induced by heat in the field-grown plants was determined. The relationship between the relative injury (RI) occurring in leaf tissue discs of chrysanthemum cultivars and treatment temperature was sigmoidal. A single temperature treatment at 50 °C resulted in injury values near the midpoint of the sigmoidal response curve and showed the greatest sensitivity in detecting genotypic differences in heat tolerance. The cultivars with a low RI value are those with the greater CMT and shorter heat-induced delay to flowering.
Brent K. Harbaugh
Seedling growth and flowering responses were examined for four Eustoma cultivars exposed to photoperiod × temperature treatments during two seedling ages. Seedlings were grown under short days (SD, 12-hour photoperiod) or long days (LD, 18-hour photoperiod) in soil at 12 or 28C from 14 to 43 days after sowing. Seedlings from each treatment were then subdivided into four lots and subjected to the same photoperiod × temperature treatments from 43 to 79 days after sowing, for a total of 16 treatments. To determine flowering response, seedlings were grown subsequently for 120 days at 22C under the same photoperiod that they received from day 43 to 79. For all cultivars and both seedling ages, seedlings were larger and had more leaves when grown at 28C rather than at 12C, but the tallest plants at flowering were from seedlings exposed to 12C. Seedlings from some treatments bolted but did not initiate visible flower buds, and some seedlings developed visible buds that later aborted, resulting in plants that did not flower by the termination of the experiment (199 days). Cultivar and interactive effects of photoperiod and temperature influenced the percentage of flowering plants. Vegetative growth and flowering responses were similar for `Yodel White', `Heidi Pink', and `Blue Lisa'. They flowered as LD plants when seedlings were grown at 12C from day 14 to 43 or day 43 to 79. Seedlings of these cultivars that were grown under SD at 28C from day 43 to 79 did not flower, regardless of photoperiod or temperature treatments from day 14 to 43. However, SD photoperiod or 28C did not decrease flowering for `GCREC-Blue'.
Weijian Cai, Jason D. Zurn, Nahla V. Bassil and Kim E. Hummer
The cultivated octoploid garden strawberries, Fragaria × ananassa , are classified based on their flowering habit into those that flower and fruit mostly once in the Spring and those that continue to flower and fruit as long as temperatures are