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R.J. Griesbach

The environment can affect the intensity of flower color in Eustoma grandiflorum. Low light and alkaline pH within the growing cell can lead to reduced color intensity. Two independent causes are responsible for the decrease in the intensity of flower color. 1) Older flowers were more alkaline than freshly opened flowers. A 7% increase in pH was related with a 10% reduction in color intensity. 2) Flowers that open under low light were paler than those opening under high light intensity. A 25% decrease in light intensity was related to a 30% reduction in the concentration of anthocyanin and a 40% reduction in color intensity.

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Andrea Quintana, Rosanna Freyre, Thomas M. Davis, and Robert J. Griesbach

cultivars of Anagallis in the ‘Wildcat’™ series with blue, orange, dark orange, and red flower colors. Genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway that are responsible for flower color variation have been widely studied, mostly in Petunia and

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Rosanna Freyre, Chad Uzdevenes, Liwei Gu, and Kenneth H. Quesenberry

carotenoid pigments and are inferred to serve to attract pollinators ( Davies, 2004 ). Flavonoids are the most common flower color pigment, and the predominant flavonoid pigments are the anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are composed of an anthocyanidin and sugar

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Jason D. Lattier and Ryan N. Contreras

winterhardiness, range of flower colors, and unique flower phenotypes, including single-flowered and double-flowered forms ( Contreras and Lattier, 2014 ). Breeders have noted the potential for improvement in althea due to their range of flower color and form and

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Soon O. Park, Dermot P. Coyne, Nedim Mutlu, Geunhwa Jung, and James R. Steadman

Common bacterial blight, incited by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp) is a serious disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and flower color (V gene) previously were reported to be associated with six quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting leaf and pod resistance to Xcp. However, the markers for the QTL were not confirmed in different populations and environments to indicate their merit in breeding. The objective was to determine if the associations of RAPD markers and the V gene with QTL for leaf and pod resistance to Xcp in a recombinant inbred (RI) backcross population from the cross BC2F6 `PC-50' × XAN-159 and for leaf resistance to Xcp in an F2 population from a different cross pinto `Chase' × XAN-159 could be confirmed. One or two genes from XAN-159 controlled leaf and pod resistance to Xcp. Among six QTL previously detected, five in the RI backcross population and three in the F2 population were confirmed to be associated with resistance to Xcp. The V gene and RAPD marker BC437.1050 on linkage group 5 were most consistently associated with leaf and pod resistance to two to five Xcp strains in the RI backcross population and with leaf resistance to two Xcp strains in the F2 population. One to three QTL affecting leaf and pod resistance to Xcp accounted for 22% to 61% of the phenotypic variation. Gene number (one to two) estimations and number of QTL (one to three) detected for leaf and pod resistance to Xcp in the RI backcross population were generally in agreement. The marker BC437.1050 and V gene, along with other resistance genes from other germplasm, could be utilized to pyramid the different genes into a susceptible or partially resistant bean line or cultivar to enhance the level of resistance to Xcp.

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Jessica G. Barb, Dennis J. Werner, and Robert J. Griesbach

Flavonoids, carotenoids, and betalains are three classes of pigments that produce flower color in plants. Of these pigments, flavonoids are the most abundant and responsible for a broad range of flower colors, including pale yellow, ivory, pink

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Jessica D. Lubell and Mark H. Brand

Elepidote rhododendrons are important landscape plants because of showy flowers and bold evergreen foliage. The most common flower colors are lavender, pink, and white, but red flower color is highly sought after. Only some elepidote rhododendrons

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Jessa Hughes, Hamid Khazaei, and Albert Vandenberg

filling, and the seeds are removed for fresh vegetable consumption ( Anthony, 2017 ). The floriculture industry is another unexplored market for faba bean, as it exhibits large variation for many ornamental traits, including flower color. Its flowers are

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Jianjun Li, Xiaoya Lian, Chenglin Ye, and Lan Wang

, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States ( Shang et al., 2011 ). The color is considered to be an important indicator in measuring ornamental value and offers a basis for plant classification ( Zhang et al., 2012 ). The flower color is

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Cecil Pounders, Tim Rinehart, Ned Edwards, and Patricia Knight

now available that vary in ultimate size, growth habit, pest tolerance, and flower color to service various landscape objectives ( Knox, 2000 ). Breeding of crapemyrtle in the United States was primarily pioneered by Otto Spring of Okmulgee, OK, who