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Sorkel A. Kadir and Ed L. Proebsting

Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used to measure deep supercooling in flower buds of Prunus dulcis Mill., P. armeniaca L., P. davidiana (Carr.) Franch, P. persica (L.) Batsch, three sweet cherry (P. avium L.) selections, and `Bing' cherries (P. avium L.) during Winter 1990-91 and 1991-92. Low temperatures in Dec. 1990 killed many flower buds. After the freeze, dead flower primordia continued to produce low-temperature exotherms (LTEs) at temperatures near those of living primordia for >2 weeks. In Feb. 1992, cherry buds that had been killed by cooling to -33C again produced LTEs when refrozen the next day. As buds swelled, the median LTE (LTE50) of dead buds increased relative to that of living buds, and the number of dead buds that produced LTEs decreased. LTE artifacts from dead flower priimordia must be recognized when DTA is used to estimate LTE50 of field-collected samples.

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László Szalay, Béla Timon, Szilvia Németh, János Papp, and Magdolna Tóth

frost resistance, which also vary greatly over time. The experiments carried out in apricot and peach chiefly examined changes in the frost resistance of the flower buds, but there is information on the frost tolerance of the vegetative buds and the

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Ossama Kodad and Rafel Socias i Company

, a high fruit set is considered for a desirable trait in almond, although the adequate level of fruit set in any cultivar must be related to its flower bud density and to its flower quality ( Bernad and Socias i Company, 1998 ; Socias i Company et al

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Jeffrey G. Williamson and D. Scott NeSmith

development on young plants. Flower buds are typically removed from blueberry plants during the first year after planting ( Pritts, 2006 ; Williamson et al., 2004 ; Yarborough, 2006 ). Current recommendations in many states call for hand removal of flowers

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Shengrui Yao

). All the detailed flower bud survival counts and dissection were done at the Alcalde Center, but we checked the peach and apricot flower bud winter damage during blooming time at Los Lunas. Most cultivars had four trees at both locations (some cultivars

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Brian P. Pellerin, Deborah Buszard, David Iron, Charles G. Embree, Richard P. Marini, Douglas S. Nichols, Gerald H. Neilsen, and Denise Neilsen

; Pavičić et al., 2004 ). The problem can be viewed as a failure to produce sufficient flower buds annually. Although cultivar is the main factor in biennial bearing, other endogenous factors such as rootstock and hormones associated with anthesis and seed

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Fumiko Ishizuna and Nobuhiro Tsutsumi

. Earlier studies showed the position of flower bud emergence. Flower buds of sacred lotus emerge from the abaxial side of the basal part of the foliage leaves ( Kumazawa, 1979 ; Miki, 1927 ; Takhatajan, 1969 ; Wigand and Dennert, 1888 ). Scanning

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Yuto Kitamura, Hisayo Yamane, Akira Yukimori, Hiroyoshi Shimo, Koji Numaguchi, and Ryutaro Tao

synchronization of flowering between the major and pollinizer cultivars and the development of early spring frost damage, which can ultimately lead to unstable fruit production. Flower buds of temperate deciduous fruit tree species enter endodormancy (i

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt and Bryan T. Vinyard

highbush cultivar with relatively high levels of V. darrowii (25%), and ‘Jersey’ (0% V. darrowii ) to early- and late-pruning regimes, and determined the effects on cold hardiness and flower-bud survival. This information is important to developing

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Jianjun Zhang, Wei Zhu, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Yongming Fan, and Xiaonan Yu

. lactiflora has a large germplasm, with more than 600 cultivars worldwide whose flower-related characteristics vary widely among cultivars ( Zhao et al., 2014 ). Most varieties are highly valued commodities in the horticultural industry. Flower bud