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K. Ohta, A. Taniguchi, N. Konishi, and T. Hosoki

The effects of chitosan treatment on plant growth and flower quality of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. were investigated. The application of a soil mix of chitosan (1%, w/w) at sowing time remarkably enhanced growth, whereas coating seed with 0.1% chitosan in lactate was ineffective. Plants grown in the chitosan-treated soil flowered 15 days earlier than did control plants, and the number and weight of cut flowers produced were greater than for control plants or plants from chitosan-treated seed. Chemical name used: poly-(1→4)-β-D-glucoseamine (chitosan).

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Malik G. Al-Ajlouni, Jamal Y. Ayad, and Yahia A. Othman

essential to identify an optimal particle-size range that potentially improves growth and flower quality. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of tuff substrate size on growth and flower quality of two asiatic hybrid lily cultivars using

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Kathleen M. Kelley, Bridget K. Behe, John A. Biernbaum, and Kenneth L. Poff

Two identical surveys were conducted with separate samples to determine consumer perceptions of the quality of five edible flower species. Participants were either members of a class that reviewed the history and uses of edible flowers at an annual, 1-day event (Garden Days) or Michigan Master Gardeners who attended a similar class. Participants were shown a randomized series of projected photographic slides of five edible flower species and asked to indicate whether they found the flower quality acceptable. The slides depicted a range of ratings of mechanical damage, insect damage, or flower senescence on a Likert reference scale (1 through 5) developed by the researchers. A flower rated 5 was flawless, while a flower rated 1 had substantial damage. Nearly one-half of all participants had eaten edible flowers before the study, and 57% to 59% had grown them for their own consumption, indicating many individuals had previous experience. Both samples rated flower quality equally and found pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana `Accord Banner Clear Mixture'), tuberous begonia (Begonia ×tuberhybrida `Ornament Pink'), and viola (Viola tricolor `Helen Mount') acceptable from stage 5 to 3. Both groups found the nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus `Jewel Mix') flowers acceptable at only rating 5. Garden Days participants rated borage (Borago officinalis) acceptable from ratings 5 to 3, while the Master Gardeners rated their acceptability from only 5 to 4. Participants also rated flower color (yellow, orange, and blue) as equally acceptable.

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Alan Stevens, Karen Gast, and Mary L. Albrecht

The introduction of an alternative crop invokes a myriad of unknowns. Cyclic production patterns need to be described so that staggered plantings can be programmed to provide continual product supply to the marketplace. The impact of time on flower quality as well as yield is critical. Zinnia elegans `State Fair Mix' (tall and large flowered) and `Pumila Mix' (smaller flowered) were field-produced for study. Flower diameters of Z. elegans `State Fair' and Pumila displayed similar patterns; increasing from first harvest to week 5, decreasing until weeks 8/9 and then beginning to increase in week 10. Flower diameters were smaller at weeks 8/9 than at initial harvest. The number of stems harvested (per sq. meter) of Pumila decreased from initial harvest (13.5) until weeks 5-7 (7.5) and then increased dramatically to week 10 (38). Stem numbers of State Fair decreased from initial harvest (4.9) until weeks 4/5 (1.6) and then increased through week 9 (6.8).

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Raymond A. Cloyd and Clifford S. Sadof

Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of two granular systemic insecticides, acephate (Pinpoint 15G) and imidacloprid (Marathon 1G), against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) on Transvaal daisy (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex. Hook. f). These studies were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with four blocks and four treatments per block. Two rates of acephate (0.75 g/16.5-cm pot and 1.0 g/16.5-cm pot) and one rate of imidacloprid (1.3 g/16.5-cm pot) were used in two studies. Plants were artificially inoculated with five adult western flower thrips at the prebloom stage. Plants were evaluated each week for flower quality (1 = complete injury or flower distortion to 5 = no injury), thrips density per flower, and number of plants flowering in each plot. Both studies showed that the acephate treated plants had the best flower quality, lowest numbers of thrips, and greatest number of plants flowering compared to imidacloprid and the check. These studies demonstrate that granulated acephate exhibits some activity in flower tissue and may assist growers in managing western flower thrips in floricultural crops.

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Po-Hung Wu and Doris C.N. Chang

count, and spike deformity on week 14. The least significant difference ( lsd ) test was used for comparing treatment effects. Expt. 2: Effect of ba on spiking and flower quality. Two cultivars, phalaenopsis Tai Lin Redangel ‘Queen’ and phalaenopsis Sogo

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Jong Suk Lee, Young A Kim, and Young Mi Sin

Cut snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus L. cvs. Fujinoyuki, Oakland, and Bismarck) were harvested at three different stages and pulsed with silver thiosulfate (STS). Then, the flowers were treated with several preservative solutions to test the effects on vase life and flower quality. Proper storage methods were also investigated. The best harvesting time of snapdragon was when seven to nine florets were opened in a spike. The flowers harvested at this stage had more fresh weight, increased number of opened flowers per spike, and longer vase life than those harvested at earlier stages. Pulsing with 0.2 mM STS for 16 h improved flower quality and prolonged vase life. The preservative solution containing 2% sucrose + 150 ppm 8-hydroxyquinone citrate (HQC) + 25 ppm AgNO3 prolonged vase life. However, this solution caused longer internode between florets and excessive elongation of spike. The preservative solution containing 2% sucrose + 150 ppm HQC + 25 ppm AgNO3 + 50 ppm daminozide improved flower quality by prolonging vase life, reducing the length of internode between florets, and preventing excessive elongation of spike. The flowers held in 50% 7-Up had 2 times prolonged vase life compared to water control. The flowers held in 4% ethyl alcohol also had prolonged vase life and increased fresh weight. Ethylene caused floret abscission and STS pretreatment prevented this floret abscission. Ethylene production in cut snapdragons maintained 2 to 6 nl/g fresh weight per h during vase life. The prolonging storage at low temperature (1C) shortened vase life. The flowers pretreated with STS, and then held in preservative solution during cold storage, had better flower quality and longer vase life than those in plain water.

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Joo Hyun Lee*, Yong-Beom Lee, and Kang Pal Kwon

This study was conducted to determine the growth and flower quality of single-node cutting rose `Versillia' under two different irrigation control methods (time clock and integrated solar radiation). The frequency of irrigation was controlled by time clock and integrated solar radiation of 1.25 and 2.09 and 3.35 MJ·m-2 in aeroponics. Photosynthesis was the highest in the integrated solar radiation of 2.09 MJ·m-2 and 1.25 MJ·m-2 the lowest in the integrated solar radiation of 3.35 MJ·m-2. The growth of single-node cutting rose `Versillia' at 1.25 MJ·m-2 and 2.09 MJ·m-2 was better than 3.35 MJ·m-2 for stem length and fresh weight. Root activities of single-node cutting rose were significantly higher at 2.09 MJ·m-2 and 1.25 MJ·m-2 than those at 3.35 MJ·m-2. The irrigation control method using integrated solar radiation of 1.25-2.09 MJ·m-2 showed a improvement of plant growth and flower quality.

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Anil P. Ranwala and William B. Miller

Experiments were conducted to evaluate storage temperature, storage irradiance and prestorage foliar sprays of gibberellin, cytokinin or both on postharvest quality of Oriental hybrid lilies (Lilium sp. `Stargazer'). Cold storage of puffy bud stage plants at 4, 7, or 10 °C in dark for 2 weeks induced leaf chlorosis within 4 days in a simulated consumer environment, and resulted in 60% leaf chlorosis and 40% leaf abscission by 20 days. Cold storage also reduced the duration to flower bud opening (days from the end of cold storage till the last flower bud opened), inflorescence and flower longevity, and increased flower bud abortion. Storage at 1 °C resulted in severe leaf injury and 100% bud abortion. Providing light up to 40 μmol·m-2·s-1 during cold storage at 4 °C significantly delayed leaf chlorosis and abscission and increased the duration of flower bud opening, inflorescence and flower longevity, and reduced bud abortion. Application of hormone sprays before cold storage affected leaf and flower quality. ProVide (100 mg·L-1 GA4+7) and Promalin (100 mg·L-1 each GA4+7 and benzyladenine (BA)) effectively prevented leaf chlorosis and abscission at 4 °C while ProGibb (100 mg·L-1 GA3) and ABG-3062 (100 mg·L-1 BA) did not. Accel (10 mg·L-1 GA4+7 and 100 mg·L-1 BA) showed intermediate effects on leaf chlorosis. Flower longevity was increased and bud abortion was prevented by all hormone formulations except ProGibb. The combination of light (40 μmol·m-2·s-1) and Promalin (100 mg·L-1 each GA4+7 and BA) completely prevented cold storage induced leaf chlorosis and abscission.

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Ockert Greyvenstein, Brent Pemberton, Terri Starman, Genhua Niu, and David Byrne

size of ‘Kardinal’ roses. Flower size quadratically decreased with increasing growing temperature after the visible bud stage ( Shin et al., 2001 ). Loss of rose flower quality by way of anthocyanin reduction was most severe when ‘Jaguar’ seedlings were