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Rogério Ritzinger and Paul M. Lyrene

Several morphological features of Vaccinium ashei Reade, V. constablaei A. Gray, their F1 hybrids, V. simulatum Small, and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L. hybrids) flowers were compared in Gainesville, Fla. Desirable characteristics that could increase the extent of honeybee pollination, such as a large corolla aperture and a short anther-to-stigma distance, were common in V. constablaei but not in V. ashei. F1 (V. ashei × V. constablaei) hybrids were generally intermediate between the two parents. Thus, it appears that V. constablaei could be used to breed V. ashei cultivars with improved flower morphology. Vaccinium simulatum and V. constablaei flowers were similar in all features. The corollas of southern highbush blueberry flowers were wide and had wide apertures, but the distance between stigma and anther pore was also large.

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Chen Xingwei, Thohirah Lee Abdullah, Sima Taheri, Nur Ashikin Psyquay Abdullah and Siti Aishah Hassan

importance of miracle fruit in the horticultural and food industry, many studies had been conducted focusing on the miraculin ( Kant, 2005 ; Temussi, 2006 ). The study on flower morphology of miracle fruit which been done by Ayensu (1972) and the existence

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Wen-Shaw Chen, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Wen-Huei Chen and Yih-Shyan Lin

Gibberellin A3 (GA3: 1, 3, or 5 (μg/shoot), 6N-benzyladenine (BA: 1, 3, or 5 μg/shoot), or both were applied to the flowering shoots of a white hybrid Phalaenopsis orchid (Leda) when they were 2 to 3 cm (stage 1, no flower primordial long at high temperature (30 °C day/25 °C night). When flowering shoots were treated with GA3, alone, deformed flowers were more frequent with increasing GA3 concentrations. The occurrence of GA3-induced deformed flowers was prevented by BA at the same dose as GA3 when applied 4 days after GA3 treatment. BA (1, 3, or 5 μg/shoot) was also applied 4 days before (time 1) or 4 days after (time 2) GA3 (1 (μg/shoot) treatment for regulating plant characteristics. The application of BA at 1 or 5 μg/shoot to stage 1 flowering shoots at time 2 resulted in short internodes between florets, whereas BA application at time 1 had no effect. Simultaneously, BA at 1 or 5 μg/shoot applied at time 1 or time 2 to stage 2 (5 to 6 cm long, two- to three-flower primordia) flowering shoots also shortened internode length between florets as compared to GA3 alone. When a stage 1 flowering shoot was given BA (3 or 5, but not 1 μg/shoot) and then treated with GA3 4 days later, flower count was slightly reduced as compared to treating with (GA3 alone. However, a high dose of BA applied at time 1 or time 2 on stage 2 flowering shoots had no effect on flower count. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-lH-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)], gibberellic acid (GA3).

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Slavko Perica, Patrick H. Brown, Joseph H. Connell, Agnes M.S. Nyomora, Christos Dordas, Hening Hu and James Stangoulis

A 2-year field study was conducted to determine if foliar B applications prior to flowering increased fruit set in olive (Olea europaea L.) cv. Manzanillo. Boron solutions were applied (935 L·ha-1) at four concentrations (0, 246, 491, and 737 mg·L-1) to trees exhibiting no vegetative symptoms of B deficiency. Foliar B application increased both the percentage of perfect flowers and fruit set, but no effect on pollen germination was observed in either year. The increase in fruit set was not accompanied by a reduction in fruit size. The beneficial effects of foliar B application varied between years and were greater when fruit set was low. The results obtained here are in agreement with those observed in other tree species, in which foliar B applications made immediately prior to flowering or during the period of floral bud initiation significantly increased fruit set and yield. The physiological basis for this effect, however, remains unclear.

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M. Oren-Shamir, L. Shaked-Sachray, A. Nissim-Levi and D. Weiss

Little is known about the effect of growth temperature on Aster (Compositae, Asteraceae) flower development. In this study, we report on this effect for two aster lines, `Suntana' and `Sungal'. Growth temperature had a dramatic effect on the duration of flower development, ranging from 22 days for plants growing at 29 °C up to 32 days for plants grown at 17 °C. Flower longevity was ≈40% shorter under the higher temperature for both lines. Growth temperature also affected flowerhead form: `Suntana' flowerhead diameter was 20% larger at 17 °C than at 29 °C. The number of `Sungal' florets per flowerhead was four times greater at the lower temperature. Shading (30%) under temperature-controlled conditions had no effect on any of the parameters measured. For plants grown outdoors, our results suggest that shading plants may increase quality by reducing the growth temperature.

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A. Godini, L. de Palma and M. Palasciano

A study to ascertain the highest possible fruit set following self-pollination of eight self-compatible cultivars of almond (Amygdalus communis L. = Prunus dulcis Mill) was carried out in Apulia (southern Italy). Fruits set from daily hand-selling were high, compared to those from unassisted self-pollination. The results support growing most of the self-compatible Apulian almonds in solid blocks, without need for cross-pollination, provided that self-pollination is optimized by insect vectors. The relative capability of the cultivars to set fruits by unassisted self-pollination was independent of the reciprocal stigma/anthers position within the same flower.

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Carlee Steppe, Sandra B. Wilson, Zhanao Deng, Keri Druffel and Gary W. Knox

fruit production. Leaf and flower morphology were assessed from plants of each variety grown under the same conditions and of the same age. Measurements included leaf blade length, peduncle length, corolla tube length, inflorescence diameter, number of

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Wagner A. Vendrame, Ian Maguire and Virginia S. Carvalho

) were transferred to 10-cm pots containing potting mix and acclimatized under greenhouse conditions. Plantlets were grown to maturity within 8–10 months and showed normal peloric flower morphology ( Fig. 1E ). No floral off-types were observed

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Junji Amano, Sachiko Kuwayama, Yoko Mizuta, Masaru Nakano, Toshinari Godo and Hajime Okuno

cultivar has long stems and leaves with an apical tendril similar to L . modesta , but leaf and flower morphologies are intermediate between the parents. Flower color of Santonia ‘Golden Light’ is orange like both parents, although flowers often redden

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J.R. Bohac and S. Rajapakse

An Ipomoea accession from Indonesia, originally classified as I. trifida, was found to segregate in flower morphology. It was hypothesized to be either a very close relative of I. batatas (6x sweetpotato), or a hybrid between I. batatas (6x) and I. trifida (2x). Twelve seedlings of this accession were grown and precise measurements of sepal angle, corolla shape, and root morphology were taken. Samples were also compared on the DNA level using molecular markers. Based on morphological measurements, it was found that some individual seedlings of the unknown Ipomoea accession were not significantly different than I. batatas; others were not significantly different than I. trifida. The control I. batatas and I. trifida lines were significantly different from each other. DNA flow cytometry was used to determine that all seedlings were diploids with the same amount of DNA per cell. Overall plant morphology and molecular analysis confirmed that all of the seedlings were very closely related and the segregation in flower morphology was not due to a seed mixture. This data is consistent with the hypothesis that the accession is a hybrid between I. batatas and I. trifida.