`Redhaven' peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] on their own roots or budded to seven rootstock [`Bailey', `Siberian C', `Lovell', `Halford' (seedlings), GF 655.2, GF 677 (`Amandier'), or `Damas' (GF 1869) (clonal)] were evaluated for rootstock influence on flower bud hardiness, live pistils at bloom, thinning requirements, marketable yield, and production efficiency after exposure to temperatures lower than – 23C in 1987 and to - 26C in 1988. In 1987, flower bud hardiness was as great on `Siberian C' as on own-rooted `Redhaven' and greater than on the other rootstock. Fewer live pistils were observed during bloom on GF 677 than on `Siberian C', `Lovell', `Damas', or self-rooted trees in 1987. In 1988, flower bud hardiness was greater on `Siberian C' and `Bailey' than on GF 677. At bloom, `Lovell' and `Siberian C' rootstock carried more flowers with live pistils than `Damas'.`Siberian C' and `Lovell' required significantly greater fruit thinning than all other rootstock and self-rooted trees. GF 677 produced a larger marketable crop than GF 655.2 or `Damas'. In addition, `Bailey', `Lovell', and self-rooted trees produced a significantly larger crop than `Damas'. No significant rootstock effect on production efficiency was detected in either year. Tree vigor during the growing season preceding each freeze did not significantly influence flower bud survival or productivity.
Cindy L. Flinn and Edward N. Ashworth
The accumulation of total soluble sugars (TSS) and starch and their relationship to flower bud hardiness were studied in three Forsythia taxa: Forsythia ×intermedia `Spectabilis', Forsythia ×intermedia `Lynwood', and F. suspensa. Taxon hardiness was based on the mean temperature at which low temperature exotherms (LTEs) occurred during thermal analysis. Ethanol-extracted soluble sugars were quantified with anthrone, and starch was enzymatically digested and quantified with Trinder reagent. Qualitative changes in sugar content were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography and co-chromatography of authentic standards. Quantitative and qualitative changes in sugar content, similar for the three taxa, were observed in conjunction with fluctuations in flower bud hardiness, although neither TSS nor starch were correlated with mean LTE temperature. TSS was higher in acclimated than nonacclimated buds. However, after deacclimation began, sugars continued to increase with mean LTE temperature. Buds lacked starch except for a brief period during deacclimation. Galactose, stachyose, raffinose, and an unidentified carbohydrate were positively correlated with hardiness (P = 0.005, 0.001, 0.005, and 0.001, respectively).
Cindy L. Flinn and Edward N. Ashworth
Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used to study the freezing behavior of `Berkeley' blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) flower buds at cooling rates of 10, 5, and 2C/hour. Experiments were conducted at various stages of hardiness on excised and attached (5 cm of stem) buds. The presence and number of low-temperature exotherms (LTEs) in hardy buds generally increased when analyses were conducted using faster cooling rates with excised buds. The number of LTEs detected in individual buds did not correlate (r2 = 0.27) with the number of injured florets. The inability to detect LTEs in buds attached to stem segments and cooled at 2C/hour indicates that DTA cannot reliably estimate blueberry flower-bud hardiness in field plantings.
Mark K. Ehlenfeldt and Bryan T. Vinyard
deacclimation among diverse blueberry genotypes J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 137 31 37 Ehlenfeldt, M.K. Stretch, A.W. Vorsa, N. Draper, A.D. 2005 ‘Cara’s Choice’ blueberry HortScience 40 1556 1557 Flinn, C.L. Ashworth, E.N. 1994 Blueberry flower-bud hardiness is not
John R. Clark and Robert Bourne
The southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) `Blueridge', `Cape Fear', `Cooper', `Georgiagem', `Gulf Coast', and `O'Neal'; the rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) `Climax'; and the highbush (V. corymbosum L.) `Bluecrop' were evaluated for ovary damage following exposure of flower buds to 0 to 30C in a programmable freezer in Dec. 1993 and Jan. and Feb. 1994. The plants sampled were growing at the Univ. of Arkansas Fruit Substation, Clarksville. Damage was based on oxidative browning of the ovaries following an incubation period after removal from the freezer. With the exception of `Climax', a minimum temperature of –15C was required before bud damage was sufficient enough to differentiate among cultivars. All southern highbush cultivars and `Bluecrop' had superior hardiness compared to `Climax' at –15C in December, –20C in January, and –15C in February. Maximum hardiness of all cultivars was found in January. The hardier southern highbush cultivars were `Cape Fear' and `Blue Ridge'. Less hardy cultivars were `Gulf Coast, `Cooper', `Georgiagem', and `O'Neal', although the date of sampling affected the ranking of these clones for hardiness, especially for the February sample date. `Bluecrop' was not consistently hardier than the hardier southern highbush cultivars, except at the February sample date.
Sorkel A. Kadir and Edward L. Proebsting
Flower buds of 20 Prunus species showed quite different strategies to cope with low temperatures. Buds of most species deep supercooled. The two hardiest species, both from the subgenus Padus (P. padus L. and P. virginiana L.), did not supercool and survived -33C with no bud kill. Prunus serotina J.F. Ehrh., also in Padus, did supercool. Prunus nigra Ait., P. americana Marsh, P. fruticosa Pall., and P. besseyi L.H. Bailey had a low minimum hardiness level (MHL), small buds, and a low water content. Exotherms were no longer detectable from the buds of these species after 2 days at -7C and some buds survived -33C. Prunus triloba Lindl. and P. japonica Thunb. were similar to that group, but no buds survived -33C. Prunus davidiana (Carriere) Franch., P. avium L., and P. domestica L. had a relatively high MHL but hardened rapidly when the buds were frozen. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., P. subhirtella Miq., P. dulcis (Mill) D. A. Webb, and P. emarginata (Dougl. ex Hook) Walp. deep supercooled, had large flower buds and a high MHL, and were killed in the Dec. 1990 freeze. Prunus salicina Lindl., P. hortulana L.H. Bailey, P. armeniaca L., and P. tomentosa Thunb. were in an intermediate group with a moderately low MHL and a moderate rate of hardiness increase while frozen. Prunus dulcis and P. davidiana had a low chilling requirement and bloomed early, whereas P. virginiana, P. fruticosa, P. nigra, and P. domestica had high chilling requirements and bloomed late.
Dennis E. Deyton, Renae E. Moran, Carl E. Sams and John C. Cummins
Applications of soybean oil to dormant peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees were tested for prebloom thinning of flower buds in five separate experiments. Data were combined from experiments in which 2.5% to 20% emulsified soybean oil was sprayed on `Belle of Georgia' or `Redhaven' trees. The number of dead flower buds was concentration-dependent with maximum bud kill of 53% occurring with application of 12% soybean oil. The amount of thinning was fairly consistent from year to year, ranging from 34% to 51% when 10% soybean oil was applied, but was less consistent when 5% was applied, ranging from 6% to 40%. Overthinning by midwinter applications of soybean oil occurred in one experiment when bud mortality on nontreated trees was 40% due to natural causes. Mild to moderate spring freezes occurred in three experiments, but did not reduce yield more in soybean oil–thinned than in nontreated trees. Flower bud survival was improved when trees were sprayed with 10% or 12% soybean oil prior to a –4 °C spring frost. Applications of soybean oil to dormant trees thinned flower buds, reduced the amount of hand thinning required, and hastened fruit maturity.
Ross E. Byers and R.P. Marini
Peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) BatSch.] blossom-thinned by hand were overthinned due to poor fruit set of the remaining flowers; however, their yield was equivalent to trees hand-thinned 38 or 68 days after full bloom (AFB). Blossom-thinned trees had three times the number of flower buds per unit length of shoot and had more than two times the percentage of live buds after a March freeze that had occurred at early bud swell the following spring. Blossom-thinned trees were more vigorous; their pruning weight increased 45%. For blossom-thinned trees, the number of flowers per square centimeter limb cross-sectional area (CSA) was two times that of hand-thinned trees and four times that of the control trees for the next season. Fruit set of blossom-thinned trees was increased four times. Flower buds on the bottom half of shoots on blossom-thinned trees were more cold tolerant than when hand-thinned 68 days AFB. Fruit set per square centimeter limb CSA was 400% greater the following year on blossom-thinned trees compared to controls. Removing strong upright shoots on scaffold limbs and at renewal points early in their development decreased dormant pruning time and weight and increased red pigmentation of fruit at the second picking. The number of flower buds per unit shoot length and percent live buds after the spring freeze were negatively related to crop density the previous season for trees that had been hand-thinned to varying crop densities at 48 days AFB. According to these results, blossom thinning and fruit thinning to moderate crop densities can influence the cold tolerance of peach flower buds in late winter.
Edward F. Durner and Thomas J. Gianfagna
Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv Jerseydawn and Jerseyglo) flower bud hardiness was studied using exotherm analysis following application of ethephon ((2-chloroethyl) phosphoric acid, 0.7mM) in October. Rehardening varied with temperature (7 or 21C), cultivar, ethephon treatment, and sampling date. Buds were more susceptible to injury in March compared to January or February. Buds rehardened more rapidly at 21C than at 7C. `Jerseyglo' rehardened more rapidly than `Jerseydawn'. Untreated buds were less hardy and also rehardened more rapidly than treated buds. Ethephon enhanced flower bud hardiness by (1) decreasing the mean low temperature exotherm of pistils, (2) increasing the number of buds which supercooled after rehardening, and (3) it decreased the rate of rehardening.
Cindy L. Flinn and Edward N. Ashworth
Thermal analysis of Forsythia × intermedia `Spectabilis' flower buds had previously detected the occurrence of low temperature exotherms (LTE) during freezing. The LTE apparently resulted from the freezing of supercooled water and corresponded to the death of the florets. The genus Forsythia encompasses a wide array of species and interspecific crosses ranging in flower bud hardiness and floret size. The ability of buds to supercool, the relationship between the LTE and flower bud hardiness, and the extent to which floret size affects both were studied in flower buds of the following Forsythia species: F. × intermedia `Spectabilis', F. × intermedia `Lynwood', F. `Meadowlark', F. suspensa var. fortunei, F. `Arnold Dwarf, F. europaea, F. giraldiana, F. × intermedia `Arnold Giant', F. japonica var. saxatilis, F. mandshurica, F. ovata, and F. viridissima. Flower buds used for thermal analysis were also used in subsequent size determinations. Hardiness evaluations were conducted using controlled freezing tests, and the sampling interval defined using the temperature range of the LTEs. Initial evaluation indicated a high degree of correlation (α>.50) between mean LTEs and mean killing temperatures. The Forsythia genus, with its broad range of bud hardiness and size provides an excellent system in which to study the mechanisms of supercooling. Thermal analysis of cultivars which exhibit LTEs can accurately assess bud hardiness with minimal plant material.