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Tanya J. Hall, Roberto G. Lopez, Maria I. Marshall, and Jennifer H. Dennis

The commercial floriculture industry in the United States includes bedding and garden plants, potted flowering and foliage plants, propagative material, cut flowers, and cut cultivated greens ( USDA, 2008 ). Most floriculture crops are produced

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Neil O. Anderson

The increasing number of crops being grown for the floriculture market has frustrated educators faced with limited classroom and laboratory time. Time constraints necessitate selection of crops to serve as examples of floral induction treatment(s) and provide an accurate scope of production requirements for all cultivated species. Since flowers are the primary reason for purchasing most floricultural products—with the notable exception of cut and potted foliage—the various treatments required for flower bud initiation and development were used to categorize potted plants. New and old crops (>70 species) are categorized for flower bud initiation and development requirements, including photoperiod (short, long day, day neutral; facultative/obligate responses), vernalization, temperature, autonomous, rest period, and dormancy. Crop-specific temperature, irradiance, and photoperiod interactions are noted, as well as temperature × photoperiod interactions. A course syllabus can be modified to ensure that at least one crop from each category is presented to serve as a model. It is recommended that the class focuses on example crop(s) from each floral induction category and then reviews other crops within each category for differences or similarities. This method allows coverage of floral induction categories without leaving information gaps in the students' understanding. This method was used with students in the Fall 1999, floriculture production class (Hort 4051) at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul.

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Tanya J. Hall, Jennifer H. Dennis, Roberto G. Lopez, and Maria I. Marshall

The commercial floriculture industry in the United States includes bedding and garden plants, potted flowering and foliage plants, propagative material, cut flowers, and cut cultivated greens ( USDA, 2008 ). According to the 2007 Census of

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Hui-Shan Chan, Hui-Ying Chu, and Mei-Fang Chen

, bouquet packaging, and venue decoration for weddings or funerals. Relevant floriculture courses are rarely offered as part of formal education; therefore, most practitioners acquire their basic design skills through apprenticeships, nongovernmental

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William B. Miller, Neil S. Mattson, Xiaorong Xie, Danghui Xu, Christopher J. Currey, Kasey L. Clemens, Roberto G. Lopez, Michael Olrich, and Erik S. Runkle

Potted spring-flowering bulbs and bedding and garden plants collectively account for $1.97 billion (49%) of the total U.S. wholesale value of floriculture crops for the 15 top-producing states ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2011 ). These crops

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Gloria B. McClure, N. Suzanne Lana, and Gregory A. Lang

128 POSTER SESSION 18 (Abstr. 763-787) Floriculture: Growth and Development

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Sophia Kamenidou and Todd Cavins

Silicon (Si) is a nonessential element that has proven to be a beneficial supplement to agricultural crops. In floriculture greenhouse production, soilless substrates have limited Si content and supplements may improve plant quality. The objective of this study was to determine Si sources, rates, and application methods to improve plant quality. Zinnia elegans `Oklahoma Formula Mix', Helianthus annuus `Ring of Fire', and Gerbera `Acapella' were provided potassium silicate (KSiO3) as a media incorporated flakes or weekly drench, sodium silicate (NaSiO3) as weekly foliar spray or ashed rice hulls. Zinnia and Helianthus Si levels were highest in leaf (0.5% to 1.7%), followed by flower (0.3-0.5%) and stem (0.2-0.4%) tissues. Gerbera accumulated lower amounts of Si compared to Zinnia and Helianthus with similar leaf and flower content values ranging from 0.4% to 0.6% with stem values 0.4% Si. Depending on source and rate, several horticultural traits were improved. Zinnia benefits included stem thickness, increase in flower diameter and stem erectness. Helianthus Si supplementation resulted in increased stem thickeness and flower diameter. However, phytotoxicity problems occurred with Si rates above 200 mg·L–1 (SiO2 applied as weekly potassium silicate drench). Gerbera stems thickened with KSiO3 and NaSiO3 applications, but NaSiO3 foliar sprays increased stem length, flower diameter and resulted in earlier flowering.

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Ryan W. Dickson, Paul R. Fisher, and William R. Argo

, limestone type and rate, applied nutrients and concentration, irrigation water alkalinity, and plant species ( Argo and Biernbaum, 1996 , 1997 ; Johnson et al., 2013 ). Floriculture species also differ in susceptibility to developing iron or manganese

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Roy A. Larson

Plastic products have revolutionized commercial floriculture. Even plastic flowers have caused a new marketing consideration because they are quite competitive with the marketing of live material. Plastic pots are used widely because they are lightweight, attractive, and relatively inexpensive. Plastic flats and trays have been readily accepted by the consumer, and were instrumental in the development of plug culture. Major components of automatic watering systems are made of plastic, and much of the plumbing practiced in commercial floriculture is done with plastic pipe and fittings. Plastic foams are used in floral arrangements, growing media, and propagation cubes or strips. Plastic is used to make steam-sterilization covers, shading material for the manipulation of both light intensity and photoperiod, and mulches or ground covers to help control weeds. Very large quantities of plastic are used in commercial floriculture, and recent landfill restrictions have necessitated procedures for recycling. Recycling procedures are known, but logistics and economics of recycling have not been resolved completely.

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William D. Wheeler, Paul Thomas, Marc van Iersel, and Matthew Chappell

significantly impact floriculture production in some, if not all, regions of the United States, which is valued at ≈$4 billion annually [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2015a ]. State and federal regulations that limit water consumption and runoff for