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M. Wivutvongvana and H. J. Mack


Anatomical and morphological studies were made on ‘Gallatin 50’ and ‘Oregon 58’ bush snap beans. The first leaf primordium was observed 3 to 4 days after planting. Four or 5 leaf primordia were formed in spiral phyllotaxy with plastochrons lasting 1 day or less. The first floral primordium occurred in the axil of the uppermost leaf 7 to 9 days after planting. Floral parts became discernible 5 days later.

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Y.H. Huang, C.E. Johnson, and M.D. Sundberg

Floral morphology and differentiation of `Sharpblue' southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were studied under natural growing conditions. There was no rest period during floral development of `Sharpblue' blueberry in Louisiana. Basal florets were already present within a racemic inflorescence in early September. All floral and reproductive organs were clearly visible in early December. Microspores and pollen grains were observed in mid- and late-January, respectively. Megasporocytes, two-cell, four-cell, and seven-cell embryo sacs were found to be simultaneously present in developing ovules in late January, suggesting that megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis in `Sharpblue' blueberry are asynchronous.

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Richard L. Harkess and Robert E. Lyons

Histological and histochemical examination of floral initiation was conducted to determine the pattern of flowering in Rudbeckia hirta, a long-day (LD) plant. Plants were grown under 8-hour short days (SDs) until they had 14 to 16 expanded leaves. Half of the group of plants was moved to LD conditions consisting of natural daylength plus a 4-hour night interruption. Rudbeckia hirta had a pattern of differentiation in flowering similar to that reported in species requiring one inductive day for initiation. Rudbeckia hirta required 8 LDs for evocation and 18 LDs for completion of initiation. Involucral bracts initiated after 18 LDs, after which the receptacle enlarged and was capped by a meristematic mantle of cells signaling the start of development. Floret primordia did not initiate, even after 20 LDs. Increases in pyronin staining were observed in actively dividing cells of the procambium, leaf primordium, and corpus of the vegetative meristems. After 8 LDs, the pith rib meristem stained darkly, a result indicating the arrival of the floral stimulus. An increase in pyronin staining was also observed in the meristematic mantle covering the receptacle after 18 LDs, a result indicating increased RNA levels.

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Hazel Y. Wetzstein, Jules Janick, and Jorge F.S. Ferreira

, 1996 ; Ferreira et al., 1995 ). In 2007, plants and seed from this material were sent to the University of Georgia for studies of floral anatomy, micropropagation, and selection ( Wetzstein et al., 2014 , 2018 ). Selections were made over successive

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Todd J. Rounsaville and Thomas G. Ranney

characters such as leaf and stem complexity, inflorescence structure, and floral anatomy had served to distinctly separate Mahonia from Berberis . However, Mahonia section Horridae Fedde (approximately nine species), which includes M. freemontii

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Karim Keshavarz, Kourosh Vahdati, Mahmoud Samar, Behzad Azadegan, and Patrick H. Brown

deciduous species, Zn deficiency can have a marked effect on pollen production, pollen physiology, floral anatomy, and yield ( Usenik and Stampar, 2002 ; Ute and Clemens, 2005 ). Zinc deficiency in walnut is visually expressed as small leaves and nuts