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Haejeen Bang, Angela R. Davis, Sunggil Kim, Daniel I. Leskovar, and Stephen R. King

Flesh color is an important fruit quality trait that helps to determine attractiveness and is indicative of the potential health benefits of watermelon. The coloration of watermelon flesh is attributable to its carotenoid composition and content

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C.E. Johnson, J.T. Payne, and K.C. Pee

Controlled crosses of a Vermillion red flesh color cultivar with 4 normal red flesh color cultivars were made. F1, F2, and backcross generations were grown in the field and the fruits evaluated for flesh color. All fruits of the F1 generation were Vermillion. The F2 generation segregated to a 9:7 ratio of vermillion to normal in all crosses. The probabilities of fit ranged from 0.10 to 0.95. This ratio is indicative of two dominant genes with complementary effects or double recessive epistasis, Backcrosses to the dominant parent produced almost all vermillion flesh fruit. Backcrosses to the recessive parents did not fit any documented ratios. Further analysis of the BC generations seems to suggest that flesh color is controlled by two dominant genes.

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C.E. Johnson, J.T. Payne, and K.C. Pee

Controlled crosses of a Vermillion red flesh color cultivar with 4 normal red flesh color cultivars were made. F1, F2, and backcross generations were grown in the field and the fruits evaluated for flesh color. All fruits of the F1 generation were Vermillion. The F2 generation segregated to a 9:7 ratio of vermillion to normal in all crosses. The probabilities of fit ranged from 0.10 to 0.95. This ratio is indicative of two dominant genes with complementary effects or double recessive epistasis, Backcrosses to the dominant parent produced almost all vermillion flesh fruit. Backcrosses to the recessive parents did not fit any documented ratios. Further analysis of the BC generations seems to suggest that flesh color is controlled by two dominant genes.

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Walter Boswell, Bernard Bible, and Suman Singha

Flesh color has been proposed as a maturity index for peaches. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of this parameter in `Loring', `Jersey Dawn', `Madison', and `Raritan Rose' peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch). Fruit were picked at weekly intervals at three or four harvest dates, with five fruit per cultivar being picked from each of three trees. Flesh firmness and soluble solids were measured immediately following harvest, and CIELAB coordinates (L*a*b*) of blush and flesh color were determined with a Minolta CR-200b calorimeter. There was a highly significant correlation (P < 0.001) between firmness and flesh hue angle for all four cultivars and with flesh chroma especially for the white-fleshed `Raritan Rose'. The correlation values between firmness and blush hue angle were consistently lower. Soluble solids did not consistently correlate with flesh or blush color. Even though blush color influences consumer preference, it was not as good an indicator of maturity as flesh color for the cultivars that we tested.

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Mohamed S. Al-Saikhan, Luke R. Howard, and J. Creighton Miller Jr.

The influence of variety and location on flesh color was examined using Texas and Colorado grown tubers from ten yellow flesh and two white flesh potato varieties. Flesh color was determined using a Hunter Colorimeter, which gives three readings, L* (lightness to darkness), a* (green-red index) and b* (blue-yellow index) Three readings were taken from each tuber at the distal end, center, and stem end. There were significant differences in color among varieties grown in each location for L*, and at both locations, the center was darker. The distal end had the highest chroma and hue angle values at both location. Significant differences were found between the same variety grown in both locations for L*, chroma, and hue. Chroma and hue were greater in Texas grow tubers which indicated more redness. Lower mean hue angle values indicated that Texas tubers were more red, whereas Colorado tubers were yellow. Higher mean chroma values indicated that Texas grown tubers were redder than Colorado grown tubers. L*, chroma, and hue angle are the most useful quantitative measurements.

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Warren R. Henderson, Gregory H. Scott, and Todd C. Wehner

Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] flesh color is controlled by several genes to produce red, canary yellow, salmon yellow, and orange. Our objective was to study the interaction of three gene loci with two or three alleles at each C (canary yellow vs. red), y (salmon yellow vs. red), yo (orange), and i (inhibitory to C permitting Y to produce red flesh color). Five crosses were used to study gene action: `Yellow Baby' × `Sweet Princess', `Yellow Baby' × `Tendersweet Orange Flesh', `Yellow Baby' × `Golden Honey', `Yellow Doll' × `Tendersweet Orange Flesh', and `Yellow Doll' × `Golden Honey'. Based on the performance of six generations (PA, PB, F1, F2, BC1A, and BC1B), the parents had the following genotypes: `Yellow Baby' = CCYYII, `Yellow Doll' = CCYYII, `Sweet Princess' = ccYY ii, `Tendersweet Orange Flesh' = ccyoyoII, and `Golden Honey' = ccyyII. Segregation of flesh colors in the progeny of the five families demonstrated that there was a multiple allelic series at the y locus, where YY (red) was dominant to yo yo (orange) and yy (yellow). Also, yoyo was dominant to yy. In conclusion, epistasis is involved in genes for the major flesh colors in watermelon, with ii inhibitory to CC (Canary), resulting in red flesh, and CC in the absence of ii epistatic to YY, producing canary flesh.

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Joshua D. Williamson, Cameron P. Peace, Frederick A. Bliss, David T. Garner, and Carlos H. Crisosto

The Y locus of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] controls whether a tree will produce fruit with white or yellow flesh. Flesh color has implications for consumer acceptance and nutritional quality, and improved cultivars of both flesh types are actively sought. This paper focuses on evidence that the flesh color locus also controls senescent leaf color (easily observed in the fall) and hypanthium color. In two progeny populations totaling 115 progeny plus their parents, the three traits co-segregated completely. Trees carrying the dominant allele for white flesh had yellow senescent leaves and yellow hypanthia, while homozygous recessive yellow-fleshed types exhibited orange senescent leaves and orange hypanthia. Senescent leaf color was also measured quantitatively, with major colorimetric differences observed between white-fleshed and yellow-fleshed progeny. Senescent leaf hue angle and reflected light wavelengths of 500 to 560 nm were the parameters most affected by the flesh color locus. Results were verified with 10 white-fleshed and 10 yellow-fleshed cultivars. The findings show that the Y locus in peach controls the type and concentration of carotenoids in multiple organs, including fruit, leaves, and flowers. The ability to discriminate between white and yellow flesh color using a simple visual method, applicable in plants not yet at reproductive maturity, is valuable to breeders wanting to save time, growing space, and money.

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Kenneth R. Tourjee, Diane M. Barrett, Marisa V. Romero, and Thomas M. Gradziel

The variability in fresh and processed fruit flesh color of six clingstone processing peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] genotypes was measured using CIELAB color variables. The genotypes were selected based on the relative fruit concentrations of β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. Significant (p < 0.0001) differences were found among the genotypes for the L*, a*, and b* color variables of fresh and processed fruit. Mean color change during processing, as measured by ΔELAB, was greatest for `Ross' and least for `Hesse'. A plot of the first two principal components (PCs) obtained from PC analysis of the L*, a*, and b* variables for fresh and processed fruit revealed three clusters of genotypes that match groupings based on the relative concentrations in fresh fruit of carotenoid pigments. Path analysis showed that variation in β-cryptoxanthin concentration was more precisely determined from color data than β-carotene concentration. Chemical names used: β-β-carotene (β-carotene), (3R)-β-β-caroten-3-ol (β-cryptoxanthin).

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Erik J. Sacks and David M. Francis

The genetic and environmental variation for flesh color of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit was quantified using 41 red-fruited breeding lines, open-pollinated cultivars, and hybrids that are representative of the diversity of tomatoes grown for whole-peel processing in the midwestern and eastern United States and Ontario, Canada. Objective color measurements were made for 2 years from replicated experiments with 2 to 4 blocks per year. Genotypes differed significantly in lightness value (L*), saturation (chroma), and hue angle. Variation within fruit and among fruit in plots accounted for more than 75% of the environmental variation for the color traits. The crimson locus (ogc) accounted for less than one-third of the variation in fruit color among genotypic means, and explained 18% to 27% of the genotypic variation for L*, chroma, and hue. Estimates of variance components were used to develop sampling strategies for improving selection efficiency. Genotypes were identified that may be useful for studying genetic differences that lead to quantitative variation for fruit color in red-fruited populations of tomato.

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Rachel A. Itle and Eileen A. Kabelka

a wide range of whites, yellows, and oranges ( Gross, 1991 ). This color is based on the particular carotenoid types and concentrations that are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Over a dozen genes that affect the rind and flesh color