Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 16 items for :

  • "flesh breakdown" x
  • All content x
Clear All
Free access

Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

incidence of stem-end cracking ( Byers, 1998 ). ‘Gala’ apples can also develop flesh breakdown during cold storage in air or a controlled atmosphere (CA) ( Argenta et al., 2006 ; Johnson, 2000 ; Stow and Genge, 2000 ). CA storage CO 2 content (0, 1, or 5

Full access

Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

treated fruit may be associated with reduced fresh weight loss and ripening during cold storage ( Bai et al., 2005 ; Fan et al., 1999 ). The incidence of ‘Royal Gala’ flesh breakdown increases with increased fruit size but flesh breakdown severity is

Free access

Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

). ‘Royal Gala’ apples are also susceptible to the development of flesh breakdown during and after cold storage ( Lee et al., 2013 ). However, flesh breakdown development can be delayed following fruit exposure to 1-MCP ( Lee et al., 2013 ). Nonetheless, 1

Free access

O.L. Lau

Tolerance of apples to low levels (0.5%) of O2 was cultivar-dependent. `Spartan' (SP), `Delicious' (RD), and `Golden Delicious' (GD) apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) held for 7 months in 1.0% O2 (with 1.5% CO2) at 0.5C, plus ≈2 months in air at 0C and 7 days in air at 20C, were similar to those held in 1.5% O2. However, incidence of skin injury in fruit held in 0.5% O2 was very high in SP (purple-brown discoloration), low in RD (purple-brown discoloration), but only negligible in GD (lesions). Skin discoloration in SP and RD developed rapidly in air at 20C. Holding in 0.5% O2 improved retention of flesh firmness and juice acidity in GD and, under certain conditions, reduced scald in RD and SP, delayed yellowing in GD, but increased flesh breakdown in SP, flesh browning and alcohol flavor in SP and RD, and core browning in RD.

Free access

Yong Seo Park, Clara Pelayo, Betty Hess-Pierce, and Adel A. Kader

`Shinko' and `Shinsui' Asian pears were kept in air, 2 kPa O2, 2 kPa O2 + 2.5 kPa CO2, and 2 kPa O2 + 5 kPa CO2 (balance N2 in each treatment) at 0 °C or 5 °C for up to 24 weeks. The three CA treatments reduced respiration (O2 consumption) and ethylene production rates relative to air control pears; these rates were higher at 5 °C than at 0 °C and higher for `Shinsui' than for `Shinko' pears. While `Shinsui' pears had a climacteric pattern of respiration and ethylene production rates, `Shinko' pears produced very small quantities of ethylene and exhibited a non-climacteric respiratory pattern. `Shinko' pears had a much longer postharvest life than `Shinsui' pears (24 weeks vs. 12 weeks at 0 °C). CA treatments had a greater effect on delaying deterioration of `Shinsui' than `Shinko' pears, which were more sensitive to CO2 injury and associated accumulation of fermentative metabolites (acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethyl acetate). `Shinko' pears did not benefit from CA storage and were best kept in air at 0 °C. An atmosphere of 2 kPa O2 with or without up to 5 kPa CO2 delayed flesh breakdown of `Shinsui' pears during storage 0 °C.

Free access

James M. Wargo, Ian Merwin, and Christopher Watkins

`Jonagold' apple often has problems of inadequate red blush development at harvest, and loss of firmness and skin “greasiness” after refrigerated storage. During two growing seasons we tested factorial combinations of three preharvest treatments for managing these problems: 1) N fertilization (no applied N, 34 kg N/ha in May, or 1% (w/w) foliar urea sprays in May and June); 2) mid-summer trunk scoring (girdling); and 3) aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) applications 3 weeks prior to harvest. Fruit were harvested at four weekly intervals each year, and evaluated for size, blush, firmness, soluble solids, ethylene, and starch hydrolysis. Nitrogen delayed blush development in 1998, but not 1999, and there was no difference in fruit surface blush coverage between foliar urea and soil applied N. Nitrogen applications increased fruit size, decreased fruit firmness, and increased post-storage flesh breakdown in 1999. Trunk scoring increased blush coverage and intensity both years, and improved market-grade packouts. Blush increase after trunk scoring was not caused by advanced fruit maturity (based on ethylene and starch indices) in either year, although it did increase skin greasiness slightly. AVG treatments delayed maturity and blush development of `Jonagold' by 7 to 10 days both years, relative to untreated fruit. Flesh firmness increased and greasiness decreased in AVG treated fruit harvested on the same dates as controls. However, in AVG fruit harvested at comparable stages of maturity 7 to 10 days later, firmness and greasiness were equivalent to untreated fruit on the previous harvest date. Trunk scoring and no N fertilizer were effective for improving fruit blush coloration, and AVG for delaying harvest maturity.

Free access

James M. Wargo, Ian A. Merwin, and Christopher B. Watkins

`Jonagold' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] often fail to develop adequate red coloration at maturity and become soft and greasy in storage. During two growing seasons, we tested factorial combinations of three preharvest treatments affecting `Jonagold' quality at harvest and after storage: 1) three nitrogen (N) treatments [36 kg·ha-1 soil applied N, 6.9 kg·ha-1 of urea-N (1% w/v) in foliar sprays mid-May and June, or no N fertilizers]; 2) trunk girdling in early August each year; and 3) foliar applications of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, formulated as ReTain) 3 weeks before the first scheduled harvest. Fruit were sampled at four weekly intervals each year and evaluated for maturity and quality at harvest and after storage. Foliar urea and soil-applied N delayed red color development in 1998 but not 1999, increased fruit size in girdled and nonAVG treated trees in both years, and increased greasiness in 1999 only. AVG reduced fruit greasiness after storage both years. Nitrogen uptake was reduced in the dry Summer 1999, but N treatments still increased poststorage flesh breakdown. Mid-summer trunk girdling increased red coloration and intensity both years and improved market-grade packout. This effect was not caused by advanced maturity, although trunk girdling slightly increased skin greasiness. Girdling reduced fruit size only on trees of low N status. The AVG applications delayed maturity and red color development by 7 to 10 days in both years compared with untreated fruit. In 1998, the combination of AVG and N fertilization delayed red color development more than either treatment alone. Fruit softening and greasiness were reduced in AVG-treated fruit harvested at the same time as untreated fruit, but this effect was not observed when AVG treated fruit were harvested at comparable maturity 7 to 10 days later. Trunk girdling and withholding N fertilizer were the best treatments for enhancing red coloration, and foliar N concentrations of ≈2.0% (W/W) resulted in better packouts compared with higher leaf N levels. AVG was an effective tool for delaying fruit maturity and maintaining fruit quality awaiting harvest, but not for improving red coloration of `Jonagold' apples.

Free access

Terence L. Robinson, William F. Millier, James A. Throop, Stephen G. Carpenter, and Alan N. Lakso

Mature `Empire' and `Redchief Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) trained to a Y-shaped trellis (Y/M.26) or trained as pyramid-shaped central leaders (CL/M.7) were mechanically harvested with the Cornell trunk recoil-impact shaker during 4 years. With `Empire', fruit removal from the Y/M.26 trees (85% to 90%) was significantly less than from the CL/M.7 trees (95% to 97%). With `Delicious' there were no differences in fruit removal (90% to 95%) between the two tree forms in any year. When the catching pad was on the ground, fruit grade based on damage was only slightly better for the Y/M.26 trees than for the CL/M.7 trees. When the catching pad was raised up near the Y/M.26 canopy, fruit grade was significantly improved for the Y/M.26 trees and was better than the CL/M.7 trees. Fruit grade for both cultivars ranged from 83% to 94% Extra Fancy with 5% to 16% culls for the Y/M.26 trees and from 74% to 88% Extra Fancy and 11% to 21% culls for the CL/M.7 trees. Skin punctures, skin breaks, and number of large and small bruises were lower and the percentage of nondamaged fruit was higher with the Y/M.26 trees when the pads were close to the canopy than when the pads were on the ground. The CL/M.7 trees had higher levels of all types of fruit damage than did the Y/M.26 trees. Damaged fruit from the CL/M.7 trees was mainly from the top half of the tree, while fruit from lower-tier scaffold branches had low levels of damage. Mechanically harvested fruit from the Y/M.26 trees had lower incidences of fruit rot and flesh breakdown after a 6-month storage period than did fruit from the CL/M.7 trees. Stem pulling was high with both systems and averaged 60% for `Delicious' and 30% for `Empire'. The advantage of the single plane Y-trellis system for mechanical harvesting appears to be that the catching pads can be placed close to the fruit, thereby reducing fruit damage.

Free access

Thomas Sotiropoulos, Georgios Syrgianidis, Nikolaos Koutinas, Antonios Petridis, and Dimitrios Almaliotis

, 1992 ). After 1 week without refrigerated storage, fruits exhibit flesh breakdown. Table 2. Total soluble solids, firmness, ascorbic acid, total titratable acidity, and total antioxidant capacity of the cultivars Kalliopi and Coscia over a

Free access

Georgios Syrgiannidis, Thomas Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Koutinas, and Dimitrios Almaliotis

weeks ( Syrgiannidis, 1992 ). After 1 week storage in room temperature conditions, fruits exhibit flesh breakdown. Table 2. Total soluble solids, flesh firmness, and total titratable acidity of fruits of the pear cultivars Syrgiannidis and