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William Reichert, Harna Patel, Christopher Mazzei, Chung-Heon Park, H. Rodolfo Juliani, and James E. Simon

Two new clonal oregano cultivars Origanum vulgare cv. Pierre and cv. Eli have been developed through multiyear and multisite evaluations, and have been approved by Rutgers University for commercial and public release. Each of these new cultivars have significantly greater essential oil and 2-methyl-5-propan-2-ylphenol (carvacrol) yields than the currently offered commercial alternatives. These two new cultivars were developed to provide good field performance, upright growth habit, to accumulate high essential oils yields and serve as rich sources of carvacrol. The cultivars were designed to supplement the flavor, food, fragrance, nutraceutical, cosmetic and animal and poultry industries. These two

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Brian J. Pearson, Richard M. Smith, and Jianjun Chen

imparts unique bittering, flavoring, and aromatic qualities to finished beer products ( Almaguer et al., 2014 ; Burgess, 1964 ). Lupulin contains both alpha and beta acids, principle compounds responsible for the bittering and aromatic characteristics of

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James D. McCreight and William M. Wintermantel

Melon ( Cucumis melo L.) is a fresh vegetable and dessert fruit that may also be cooked, dried, or processed for juice and flavoring. Melon seeds may be roasted and eaten like nuts and are a source of high-quality cooking oil and high-protein seed

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J.L. Collins and J.-Y. Liao

Sweetpotato (SP) provides culinary satisfaction and essential dietary nutrients: vitamins A and C, dietary fiber, ccmplex carbohydrates and minerals. Yet, consumption suffers from absence of convenience products. Therefore, objectives were to prepare a convenience-type product of baked SP and to measure selected properties/attributes When reheated. Jumbo, cured/stored roots of `Southern Delight' (SD) and `Carolina Bunch' (CB) were baked at 190 C/75-90 min or 204°C/70-80 min, peeled, cut into pieces, stuffed into cellulose casing, frozen and held 2 and 6 mo. Tests performed were proximate analysis, B-carotene, color and sensory. Solids, less carbohydrates, were higher in CB, the more intensely orange colored. Color was unaffected by baking or storage. Acceptability and desire to purchase were greater for CB baked at 204 C and stored 6 mo. Desirable characteristics included: availability, requiring heating only; textural integrity of baked roots; color and flavor retention to 6 mo; portion control; use of jumbo roots and potential for addition of flavorings.

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David R. Hershey

Scientific terms should have a single definition to avoid confusion. The noun “herb” has two broad categories of definitions, the first as a plant used in perfumery, as a dye, in cooking as flavoring, etc. and the second as a description of plant habit. Examination of over 30 definitions for the latter meaning of herb revealed great differences. Herb is variously defined as a “nonwoody plant” or as a plant with “annual aboveground stems”, allowing woody plants with annual stems to be called herbs, e.g. Buddleia or Vitex in colder climates. Other definitions restrict herbs to certain portions of the plant kingdom, such as “seed plants” or “vascular plants”. The adjective “herbaceous” is also defined in numerous ways, e.g. “not woody”, “dying to the ground each year”, “having the texture, color, etc. of an ordinary foliage leaf”. The same plant may be termed herb or herbaceous using some definitions, but not others. Since herb and herbaceous have been defined in so many different ways, the terms should be avoided, unless the definition being used is given, and more specific terms used, e.g. nonwoody plant.

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Marcelino Bazan Tene, Juan Manuel González Gonzalez, Francisco Radillo Juarez, Jorge Pahul Covarrubias Corner, and Salvador Guzman Gonzalez

The hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is a plant domesticated in Mesoamerica. Hot pepper is currently widespread worldwide, and its uses are varied, such as for flavoring, pigment base, and as a nutritional food resource. Mexico produces about 623,238 tons/year of fresh fruits in 136,398 ha; the State of Colima produced 17,181 tons in 676 ha, with a mean of 27 t·ha-1. The culture of hot pepper in Colima faces certain limitations to its productive potential, such as lack of fertile and well-drained soils, constant soil moisture, and being free of weeds during the first weeks after transplanting; and maintaining plant uniformity in transplantation. This last practice is carried out in the side bed, but there is a lack of scientific evidence about the requirements of luminosity in the seed nursery in order to accelerate improvement of plant quality for transplanting, and the impact on fruit yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of shading on germination and vegetative development of `Jalapeño' hot pepper under greenhouse conditions. Four levels of luminosity were evaluated using mesh fabrics in order to produce 90%, 75%, and 50% shade, and control (0%) without shading on the seed beds. A completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications was used. The shading treatments reduced the germination period in about 2 days; increased the percentage of germination with a range between 1.6% and 3.7%; increased the plant height 2.3, 4.8, 7.72, and 10.1 cm at 3, 7, 13, and 18 days postemergence; increased the root biomass about 7.1 g/plant, and 5.4 g of fresh foliage with the 90% shade treatment in comparison with control. Overall, a better agronomic performance of the `Jalapeño' hot pepper was obtained with 90% shading.

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Marcelino Bazán-Tene, Jaime Molina-Ochoa, and Enrique Alejandro Bracamontes-Ursúa

Hot pepper (HP), Capsicum annuum (L.), is a solanum plant domesticated in Mesoamerica. It is currently widespread worldwide, and its uses are varied, such as an excellent flavoring, pigment base, and as a food resource with source of vitamins. The seven top world producers of HP are China, Mexico, Turkey, Spain, United States, Nigeria, and Indonesia. Mexico is producing about 623,238 t/year of fresh fruits in 136,398 ha; Colima produced 17,181 t in 676 ha, with a mean of 27 t·ha-1. The culture of HP in Colima is facing certain limitations in showing its productive potential, such as maintaining fertile and well-drained soils, and constant soil moisture; being weed-free during the first weeks after transplanting; and sustaining plant uniformity into transplantation. Transplantation is made in seed beds, but there is a lack of scientific evidence on shade requirements in the seed nursery to accelerate and improve plant quality for transplanting, and to impact on fruit yield. The aim was to evaluate the effect of levels of shading on the germination and vegetative development of `Serrano' HP under greenhouse conditions. Four levels of shading were evaluated using mesh fabrics to produce 90%, 75%, and 50% shade, and a control without shading on the seed beds. A completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications was used. The shading treatments reduced the germination period in about 1 day, increased the percentage of germination with a range between 1.75% and 3.25%; increased the plant height 0.83, 2.85, and 4.38 cm at 3, 6, and 10 days post-emergence; increased the root biomass about 0.01 g/plant, and 0.24 g of fresh foliage with the 90% shade compared with the control. Overall, a better agronomic performance of `Serrano' HP was obtained with 90% shading.

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Donald N. Maynard

agent, flavoring spice, and for medicinal purposes. Long coriander leaves are used as a substitute seasoning for coriander especially in Asia and Central America. The chapters vary considerably in length (3 to 63 pages) and in detail. Citations to

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Patrick L. Byers, Andrew L. Thomas, and Margaret Millican

spreading to upright growth habit. ‘Wyldewood’ blooms in June in Missouri, and the florets are easily removed from the cyme for use as a dried product or as a flavoring. The harvest season for ‘Wyldewood’ is generally 14 to 26 d later than ‘Adams II

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Kim D. Bowman, Greg McCollum, Anne Plotto, and Jinhe Bai

as a garnish and flavoring, as has been described previously ( Hawkeswood, 2017 ; Karp, 2009 ) for the closely related Australian finger lime ( Microcitrus australasica ). This includes using the sliced fruit for food decoration, and the pulp