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Rasika G. Mudalige-Jayawickrama, Michele M. Champagne, A. David Hieber, and Adelheid R. Kuehnle

Two full-length cDNA clones, Den-CHS-4 and Den-DFR-1, encoding chalcone synthase (CHS) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) were obtained from flower bud RNA of a lavender cyanidin-accumulating Dendrobium Sw. hybrid using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Northern analyses indicated that both genes are expressed in all developmental stages of buds, with highest expression in the medium-sized buds. RT-PCR analyses showed that DFR expression was confined to floral tissue while CHS was expressed in floral and vegetative tissues but not in pseudobulbs. The nucleotide sequence of a DFR clone isolated from a pale orange pelargonidin-accumulating Dendrobium hybrid was exactly the same as Den-DFR-1, ruling out the substrate specificity of DFR as a possible cause of the color difference.

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Lixiang Miao, Yuchao Zhang, Xiaofang Yang, Jinping Xiao, Huiqin Zhang, Ming Jiang, Zuofa Zhang, Yuezhi Wang, and Guihua Jiang

application can provide very little contact with pesticide. It has been reported that the content of anthocyanin, the activities of the related enzymes, and the transcripts of the flavonoid gene in strawberry fruit could be affected by colored plastic films

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Carmina Gisbert, Judith M. Dumm, Jaime Prohens, Santiago Vilanova, and John R. Stommel

four replicates obtained from individual fruit of each cultivar. Total RNA for individual samples was isolated from ≈100 mg of frozen tissue using the protocol described in Stommel and Dumm (2015) . Real-time PCR was used to compare flavonoid gene

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Robert J. Griesbach, Ronald M. Beck, John Hammond, and John R. Stommel

imported into SigmaStat 3.1 and ANOVA performed. In significant cases, pairwise multiple comparison between means were made using Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. DNA/RNA analysis. Flavonoid gene expression (WD, MYC, and MYB transcription

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John R. Stommel and Judith M. Dumm

spectrophotometer (ND1000; NanoDrop Technologies, Wilmington, DE) and integrity and quantification confirmed using a 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA). Real-time PCR was used to compare flavonoid gene expression ( Chs , Dfr , Ans , Myb, Myc

Open access

Yan Bai, Wen Chen, Shou-Zan Liu, Lin-Yu Xu, Zhe Li, and Bin Liu

effects on plants. Black film increases dry matter accumulation and water use efficiency in maize ( Zhang et al., 2018 ), whereas red films increase the expression of flavonoid genes and the enzyme activities in strawberries ( Fragaria × ananassa ) ( Miao

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John R. Stommel, Gordon J. Lightbourn, Brenda S. Winkel, and Robert J. Griesbach

using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare flavonoid gene expression ( Chs , Dfr , Ans , Myb A , Myc , and Wd ) between anthocyanin-pigmented and

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Moon Kyung Ko, Hyunchul Soh, Kyung-Moon Kim, Young Soon Kim, and Kyunghoan Im

. 1985 A chimeric hygromycin resistance gene as a selectable marker in plant cells Plant Mol. Biol. 5 299 302 Van der Krol, A.R. Mur, L.A. Beld, M. Mol, J.N.M. Stuitje, A.R. 1990 Flavonoid

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Gordon J. Lightbourn, John R. Stommel, and Robert J. Griesbach

. RNA analysis. Flavonoid gene expression [MYC, MYB, and WD transcription factors, anthocyanin synthase ( Ans ), dihydroflavonol reductase ( Dfr ), and chalcone synthase ( Chs )] was compared under inductive and noninductive environments for

Open access

Ittetsu Yamaga and Sakura Hamasaki

24 h of irradiation. Ballester et al. (2013) reported that the maximum expression of messenger RNA from phenylpropanoid and flavonoid genes in the flavedo and albedo in infected ‘Navelina’ oranges was observed 48 h post inoculation, when the first