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Ayse Tascan, Jeff Adelberg, Mevlut Tascan, Agnes Rimando, Nirmal Joshee, and Anand K. Yadav

,” which describes the shape of the calyx at the base of flowers, which resembles miniature medieval helmets ( Joshee et al., 2002 ). Scutellaria lateriflora is native to North America, has flavonoid-rich root, and has been used as an antidepressant

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Md. Aktar Hossain, Sooah Kim, Kyoung Heon Kim, Sung-Joon Lee, and Hojoung Lee

More than 30,000 different secondary metabolites are produced exclusively by plants. One such class of compounds, the flavonoids (polyphenolic compounds), are classified according to their chemical structures into flavonols, flavones, flavanones

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Peter B. Ojong, Victor Njiti, Zibao Guo, Ming Gao, Samuel Besong, and Sandra L. Barnes

Flavonoids are a group of low–molecular-weight polyphenolic compounds. There are more than 6000 naturally occurring flavonoids, many of which are common in higher plants ( Harborne and Williams, 2000 ). The basic structure of flavonoids consists

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Yan Bai, Wen Chen, Shou-Zan Liu, Lin-Yu Xu, Zhe Li, and Bin Liu

. (2019) reported that the flavonoids present in T. hemsleyanum have a noticeable antitumor effect in leukemia and colon cancer. Wang et al. (2019a) reported that n-butanol and ethyl acetate extractions of T. hemsleyanum have superior antiviral

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Kai-Xiang Li, Kai Liu, Yingying Chen, Xiaolu Huang, Wenhui Liang, Baocai Li, Yingbai Shen, and Haiying Liang

primarily produced in leaves, among which flavonoids constitute a class of important compounds in herbal medicine ( Guo et al., 2020 ). Flavonoids are the major active secondary metabolites in the leaves of L. polystachyus ( Li et al., 2008 ). The many

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Gary W. Stutte, Ignacio Eraso, and Agnes M. Rimando

species are rich in physiologically active flavonoids that have a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity. The medicinally significant part of the plant is species dependent. Leaf extracts of Scutellaria barbata , also known as “Ban Zhi Lian

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Yanjie Wang, Yeqing Chen, Man Yuan, Zeyun Xue, Qijiang Jin, and Yingchun Xu

understanding genetic mechanisms of its petal coloration is a key to successful breeding. Flower coloration is due to the accumulation of pigments within epidermal cells, including flavonoids, which include chalcones, anthoxanthins (flavones and flavonols), and

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Ninghang Wang, Chao Zhang, Sainan Bian, Pengjie Chang, Lingjuan Xuan, Lijie Fan, Qin Yu, Zhigao Liu, Cuihua Gu, Shouzhou Zhang, Yaling Wang, and Yamei Shen

colors has become one of the main research directions of Magnolia specialists. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites of water-soluble aromatics, with a series of two benzene rings connected by a central three-carbon chain, C6-C3-C6 ( Zhao and Tao, 2015

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Kevin A. Lombard, Emmanuel Geoffriau, and Ellen Peffley

Direct spectrophotometric determination of quercetin content in onions (Allium cepa L.) was investigated as a possible alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Quercetin content in five onion varieties was monitored at 362 nm and quantified using simple spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. HPLC revealed that 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg comprised up to 93% of total flavonol content detected in the studied varieties. These major quercetin conjugates combined (3,4'-Qdg + 4'-Qmg) and total flavonol conjugates quantified by HPLC correlated closely with spectrophotometer values. Correlation coefficients were 0.96 (P < 0.0001) for 3,4'-Qdg + 4'-Qmg and 0.97 (P < 0.0001) for total flavonol conjugates in onion. Simple spectrophotometric procedure proved to be a valid, efficient, and cost-effective method for the quantification of total quercetin in onion. Chemical names used: quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside (3,4'-Qdg); quercetin-4'-O-glucoside (4'-Qmg).

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Zengqiang Ma, Shishang Li, Meijun Zhang, Shihao Jiang, and Yulan Xiao

Okinawa, has been used for hypertension, lung disease, and liver disease and underdeveloped children as a folk remedy ( Kan, 1986 ). One of the most active components in Anoectochilus was flavonoid ( Takatsuki et al., 1992 ). Many of flavonoid