The main objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the DEIAFA drift test bench system (Dipartimento di Economia e Ingegneria Agraria, Forestale e Ambientale; University of Torino, Italy) for assessing drift potential of a citrus (Citrus sp.) herbicide applicator. The study involved testing the effects of spray drift shield, nozzle type, and ground speed on drift potential of the applications. It was carried out in randomized block design within a split-split-plot experiment with five replications. A computational analysis procedure for evaluation of deposit values, measured along the test bench, was developed to compare the treatments in terms of a drift potential index (DPI). The methodology provided repeatable results. Among the treatments, ground speed was the main factor affecting the DPI. Both nozzle types tested [flat fan extended range nozzle (XR) and wide-angle deflector nozzle (TT)] showed higher DPI at faster speed. Decreasing the ground speed from 6.0 to 3.0 km·h−1 decreased the drift potential on average ≈35%. The performance of XR nozzle was improved by the presence of spray drift shield (27% reduction in DPI). However, the shield did not affect the drift potential of the TT nozzle significantly. The results were significantly affected by the wind velocity normalized by its direction relative to the sprayer travel; therefore, the tests should be carried out in relatively calm wind conditions, as much as possible.
Giuseppe Vanella, Masoud Salyani, Paolo Balsari, Stephen H. Futch and Roy D. Sweeb
Albert E. Smith and Will Corley
Lysimeters were developed in the greenhouse for simulating golf course greens with `Tifdwarf' bermudagrass and `Penncross' bentgrass overlying USGA specified rooting substratum. The lysimeters were constructed by subtending wooden flats containing turfgrass (38 × 38 × 14 cm deep) with polyvinyl chloride tubes (15 cm diam. × 52 cm deep) containing USGA-recommended rooting mixture for each turfgrass. The base of the tubes was capped with a closure containing an exit port for collecting the effluent drainage. An automatic irrigation system was developed by mounting flat fan nozzles on a cable driven roller 55 cm above the grass sod. The automatic water system is calibrated to irrigate at a rate of 0.1 cm min-1 for predetermined time-periods and volumes. The water flow through the lysimeters is uniform with a coefficient of variation less than 10% for 36 lysimeters. Data on chemical movement following treatment with three herbicides and weekly applications of fertilizer will be presented.
Celeste Welty, Sandra Alcaraz and H. Erdal Ozkan
Insecticide application techniques were evaluated to find the most effective way to spray contact insecticides to control aphids on leaf crops under field conditions. A hydraulic boom sprayer was tested with several nozzle types, nozzle positions, and pressures, and compared with an electrostatic sprayer and a controlled droplet applicator (CDA). Spray deposition in the canopy and drift were evaluated with moisture-sensitive cards. Trials were conducted on collards and red leaf lettuce in 1989, mustard greens in 1990, and turnip greens in 1991. Green peach aphid [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] was the major species in all trials. Among hydraulic boom treatments in all trials, aphid control was not significantly different when insecticide applied at 60 psi (414 kPa) was delivered by hollow cone, twin flat-fan, or standard flat-fan nozzles mounted directly on the boom. In most trials, hollow cones were more effective when mounted on drop pipes and directed sideways into rows than when mounted on the boom and directed over rows. Hollow cone nozzles used at 150 psi (1035 kpa) vs. 60 psi did not control aphids significantly better, but higher pressure caused significantly more drift. Contact insecticide applied by an electrostatic sprayer controlled aphids somewhat less satisfactorily than by a conventional hydraulic sprayer. Insecticide applied by a CDA controlled aphids the same as by a hydraulic boom sprayer but with slightly less drift. The desired objective of maximum aphid control, good coverage of downward-facing surfaces in the canopy, and minimum drift was most consistently provided by the hydraulic boom sprayer with hollow cone nozzles on drop pipes directed sideways into the canopy using a pressure of 60 psi.
Dieter Foqué, Jan G. Pieters and David Nuyttens
) proved that using small-sized extended-range flat fan nozzles at a pressure above the recommended pressure range, a common practice among Flemish greenhouse growers, resulted in significantly lower depositions, especially inside the canopy. This is in
Joseph E. Beeler, Gregory R. Armel, James T. Brosnan, Jose J. Vargas, William E. Klingeman, Rebecca M. Koepke-Hill, Gary E. Bates, Dean A. Kopsell and Phillip C. Flanagan
with a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) powered backpack sprayer calibrated to deliver 23 gal/acre at 60 psi. The spray boom contained four flat fan nozzles (Teejet 8002 flat fan nozzle; Spraying Systems, Wheaton, IL) spaced 18 inches apart. The spray swath was 8
Pascal Braekman, Dieter Foqué, Marie-Christine Van Labeke, Jan G. Pieters and David Nuyttens
an outdoor strawberry crop. Multiple 80° flat fan nozzles at a distance of 200 mm from the plant proved to be the best solution for practical use. For smaller and larger plants, three ISO 03 nozzles and five ISO 05 nozzles achieved the highest
Thomas V. Reed and Patrick E. McCullough
.i./ha, and 2,4-D + dicamba + MCPP (Trimec Classic 2.7SL; PBI Gordon Corp., Kansas City, MO) at 1.11 + 0.12 + 0.3 kg a.i./ha. Herbicide treatments were applied by making two passes with a CO 2 -pressured backpack sprayer with a single 9504E flat-fan nozzle
Adam Newby, James E. Altland, Charles H. Gilliam and Glenn Wehtje
menziesii ) bark amended 16 lb/yard 3 18N–2.6P–10K (Scotts Co.) and 1.5 lb/yard 3 Micromax micronutrients (Scotts Co.). In Alabama, quinoclamine was applied in a spray chamber equipped with a single 8005 flat fan nozzle (Spraying Systems Co., Wheaton, IL
Gregory R. Armel, Robert J. Richardson, Henry P. Wilson, Brian W. Trader, Cory M. Whaley and Thomas E. Hines
3 ft apart with a treated area of 8 × 20 ft; a single guard row of peppers separated each plot. Herbicides were applied POST with a propane-powered backpack sprayer calibrated to deliver 220 L·ha −1 at 210 kPa through flat fan nozzles (Teejet 8003
James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel, William E. Klingeman III, Gregory K. Breeden, Jose J. Vargas and Philip C. Flanagan
boom contained four flat-fan nozzles (Tee Jet XR8002 flat-fan nozzles; Spraying Systems, Roswell, GA) spaced 10 inches apart. A wheeled aluminum frame maintained the boom height at 10 inches above the surface while spraying. Star-of-bethlehem control