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Sabrina L. Shaw, William F. Hayslett and Eddie B. Williams

A one-time application of fish emulsion 2 days before the application of plant growth regulators (PGR) showed an overriding effect on the growth of pansies. Blue/blotch shades of `Medallion' pansies were placed on a constant feed program of 100 ppm Peat Lite 20N–10P–20K, with half of the pansies receiving an additional one-time supplement of fish emulsion. PGRs and rates included B-Nine, 0.5% (used as the control); uniconazole, 2 and 4 ppm; and paclobutrazol, 16 and 25 ppm. Parameters taken included plant height, top fresh weight, top dry weight, days to anthesis, and visual appearance. Significant differences were noted in the plants receiving the supplement for plant dry weight, plant height, and visual appearance. Plants receiving fish emulsion grew taller and denser than those on constant feed alone despite the effects of the PGRs.

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Handell Larco, Bernadine C. Strik, David R. Bryla and Dan M. Sullivan

Review Institute-approved fish emulsion or feather meal in organic systems. Most species of blueberry are adapted to low soil pH conditions in the range of 4.5 to 5.5 and require NH 4 -N over NO 3 -N for uptake. Nitrogen uptake increases throughout the

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Handell Larco, Bernadine C. Strik, David R. Bryla and Dan M. Sullivan

approved by the Organic Materials Review Institute, including fish emulsion or feather meal as sources of N. Fish emulsion is applied as a direct liquid application to the soil of the in-row area or is injected through the drip irrigation system. Feather

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James W. Julian, Bernadine C. Strik, Handell O. Larco, David R. Bryla and Dan M. Sullivan

Rollins, 1947 ; Hanson, 2006 ; Hart et al., 2006 ) at an estimated cost of $1 to $2/kg for synthetic N fertilizer. Organic blueberry farmers commonly use Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI)-approved fish emulsion as a direct liquid application or

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Javier Fernandez-Salvador, Bernadine C. Strik and David R. Bryla

fertilizers applied to blackberry are calcium nitrate, urea, and ammonium sulfate in conventional systems and OMRI-listed (Organic Materials Review Institute) fish emulsion, pelletized chicken litter, soybean meal, or feather meal in organic systems

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Xin Zhao, Edward E. Carey, Janice E. Young, Weiqun Wang and Takeo Iwamoto

; Humalfa, Inc., Shattuck, Okla.) incorporated before planting followed by fertigation with fish emulsion 5N–0.4P–0.8K (Lilly Miller Brands, Clackamas, Ore.). Conventional plots received 13N–5.7P–10.8K preplant and fertigation with calcium nitrate 15.5N–0P–0

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Emily K. Dixon, Bernadine C. Strik and David R. Bryla

. An OMRI-approved fish hydrolysate and fish emulsion blend were diluted 1:3 (v/v) with water and applied through the drip system using a combination of a water-driven pump fertilizer injector (Mix-Rite 571 CW; DEMA, St. Louis, MO) and an electric, low

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Renee H. Harkins, Bernadine C. Strik and David R. Bryla

afterward to flush the drip lines. Plants were fertigated with fish emulsion to provide 8.0 kg·ha −1 N on 15 Apr. and 16 kg·ha −1 N each on 9 May and 1 and 20 June in 2011 and with 14 kg·ha −1 N each on 23 Apr., 8 May, and 7 and 13 June in 2012 (56 kg

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Robert G. Anderson and Robert Hadad

A segment of the greenhouse crop market would like to obtain vegetables and herbs that are certified organic. The technology for the use of biological controls for insects and diseases is well-developed and a significant part of greenhouse vegetable production. Organic fertilizers, however, have not been well-utilized in organic greenhouse vegetable production. Common organic fertilizers were analyzed for the levels of nutrients when mixed with water for use in greenhouse fertigation. Products derived from algae-Algamin (liquid) and Ohrstrom's Garden Maxicrop (powder), Bat Guano, and products derived from fish waste-GreenAll Fish Emulsion (liquid) and Mermaid's Fish Powder, demonstrated nutrient levels comparable to typical water-soluble fertilizers used for greenhouse plant production. Although the organic fertilizers could not be used as a concentrate for injector systems, readings from a conductivity meter were directly related to nitrate nitrogen levels and could be used for fertilizer management in the capillary mat subirrigation system used for plant production.

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Ernie DeMarie, Molly Weimer and K.W. Mudge

Green pods of the C. reginae orchid were collected from a bog near Ithaca, NY. Pods were surface sterilized, and seeds were plated on agar media. The 8 germination treatments were arrange in a complete 3 way factorial consisting of 2 basal media (fish emulsion, FE vs. yeast extract, YE), 2 media pHs (4.8, 6.8), and 2 temperature regimes (constant 24 C vs. 6 wks. at 5 C prior to transfer to 24 C). Sequential stages of development included embryo enlargement and rupture of the testa (l), root elongation (2), leaf primordium development (3) and finally rhizoid development with or without protocorm greening (4). After 4 months post sowing, germination (stage 1 or beyond) was 56% and 0% on FE at pH 4.8 and 6.8 respectively, and 45% and 78% on YE at pH 4.8 and 6.8 respectively. Protocorm development from unchilled seeds after 4 months was greatest on YE at the lower pH, with 14% reaching stage 3 or 4, as contrasted to only 5% reaching stage 2 (none beyond), for the other germinated treatments. Chilled seeds had higher germination for all treatments but no development beyond stage 1 at 4 months post sowing.