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Yuanshuo Qu, Ryan M. Daddio, Patrick E. McCullough, Stacy A. Bonos, and William A. Meyer

Fine fescue is a group of several species in the genus Fesctuca , including chewings fescue, hard fescue, strong creeping red fescue, and slender creeping red fescue ( F. rubra ssp. littoralis ) ( Bonos et al., 2006 ). They are known for drought

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Austin L. Grimshaw, Yuanshuo Qu, William A. Meyer, Eric Watkins, and Stacy A. Bonos

species. Fine fescues ( Fescue spp.) are considered to be among the best low-maintenance cool-season turfgrasses ( Bonos and Huff, 2013 ; Dernoeden et al., 1994 ) and provide a number of benefits for low-input turf uses. Fine fescues are generally

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Trent M. Tate, Stacy A. Bonos, and William A. Meyer

Fine fescues ( Festuca sp.) are a group of cool-season turfgrass species that have a needle-like fine leaf texture and are well adapted to cool, humid regions of the world. They are also adapted to infertile, acidic soils; shade; and drought

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Jinyu Wang, Patrick Burgess, Stacy A. Bonos, William A. Meyer, and Bingru Huang

). Drought stress is another major limiting factor for turfgrass growth, particularly during the summer months. The decline in TQ of fine fescues, which is commonly observed during the summer, is typically associated with heat, drought, or both and is

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H. Liu, J.R. Heckman, and J.A. Murphy

The fine fescues are generally considered to be acid-tolerant compared to many other cool-season turfgrasses. However, there is a lack of documentation on aluminum tolerance of fine fescues at both the species and cultivar levels. A total of 58 genotypes belonging to five species or sub-species were screened under greenhouse conditions using solution culture, sand culture, and acid Tatum subsoil. This soil had 69% exchangeable Al and a pH of 4.4. An Al concentration of 640 μM and a pH 4.0 were used in solution screening and sand screening. Differences in Al tolerance were identified at both species and cultivar levels based on relative growth. The genotypes with endophyte infection generally exhibited greater Al tolerance than endophyte-free genotypes. The results indicate that fine fescues vary in Al tolerance and there is potential to improve Al tolerance with breeding and to refine management recommendations for fine fescues regarding soil pH.

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Larry J. Kuhns and Tracey L. Harpster

Fine fescues are immune to two common graminicides, fluazifop-p-butyl and sethoxydim. This study was initiated to determine the tolerance of three fine fescues; chewings, hard, and creeping red, to clethodim alone or with a crop oil concentrate (COC) or non-ionic surfactant (NIS). Clethodim at 0.25 or 1.0 lb/a was applied on 23 Oct. 1995 and evaluated on 22 May and 9 July 1996. Clethodim at 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 lb/a, was applied on 31 May and evaluated on 9 July 1996. Applied in the fall at 0.25 lb/a alone or with NIS, clethodim had little effect on chewings or creeping red fescue. Some injury to hard fescue was evident on 22 May, but it recovered by 9 July. The addition of COC resulted in moderate injury to all three species, with only partial recovery by 9 July. Severe injury of all species from clethodim applied at 1 lb/a was evident on 22 May. The amount of recovery that occurred by 9 July was dependent on the spray additive used. With none, all of the grasses recovered fairly well. With NIS, moderate injury to hard fescue persisted; and with COC, unacceptable injury to all species persisted. Similar results were obtained when the treatments were applied in the spring. The 0.5 lb/a rate caused an intermediate degree of injury. Though none of the clethodim treatments totally killed any of the fine fescues, unacceptable injury was caused by the 0.5 and 1.0 lb/a rates, regardless of additive, and by the 0.25 lb/a + COC treatment.

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Tara E. Paranick and N. Suzanne Lang

Shaded environments present major obstacles for establishing high quality, persistent, and resistant turfs. Exogenous fructose applications are being examined as a potential method to counteract the effects of shade on turf. This work examines the effectiveness of fructose applications under different light levels on two fine leaf fescue cultivars: chewings fescue (Festucarubra var. commutata) `SR5100' and creeping red fescue (Festucarubra var. rubra) `Dawson'. The experiment was conducted at Michigan State University, East Lansing, inside a simulated dome environment. The experiment was a randomized complete-block design that began 21 Oct. 2004 with two main factors: light and fructose. There were three light treatments: ambient light (shaded); supplemental high light; and supplemental low light. Fructose (0% or 1.25% weight/volume), dissolved in water with an organosilicone adjuvant, was applied once per week. Quality and color ratings, clippings, core samples, density, and leaf reflectance were recorded. In addition, light response curves (LRC) were taken inside an Econoair®

growth chamber using a LI-COR-6400® on the fine fescues, kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) `Cynthia', and bermudagrass (Cyondon dactylon) `Princess'. Preliminary results show that fructose had no significant effect in each light treatment for turf quality and color. However, fructose had a significant impact on clipping weights and density. The LRC specified the required and potential carbon needs as well as indicated the threshold levels, respectively, by species. The impact of fructose alone and in combination with supplemental light on photosynthesis efficiency will be presented.

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Annamarie Pennucci and Alan R. Langille

The N.T.E.P. fine fescue test was established in Sept. 1994 in the Turfgrass Experimental Plot Area of the Littlefield Ornamental Trial Garden on the Univ. of Maine campus. The test consisted of 59 cultivars seeded in a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Following soil preparation, the Marlowe fine sandy soil was amended with lime and starter fertilizer according to soil test recommendations. Seeding was facilitated using a 5 × 3-ft plywood box to eliminate wind drift, and seed was raked in by hand. The study was conducted in a shade-free location with a maintenance fertility program of N at 0.6 lb/1000 ft2 per month of growing season using a slow-release commercial 20-5-15 fertilizer. Supplemental moisture was supplied as needed using an in-ground irrigation system. Mowing was initiated in May 1995 at a height of 2.5 inches and reduced to maintenance height of 2 inches for the duration of the 3-year test. Visual turf quality, turf density, color, weediness, and disease ratings were made monthly during each growing season and were statistically analyzed. Cultivars Darwin, NJ F-93, Columbra, Florentine, and the Banner II and III series were ranked as the best performers in the early- and late-season evaluations. BARFRR4ZBD, Jasper, Defiant, Silverlawn, Treazure, SR 5100, and Spartan were cultivars that performed well in early summer; however, during August, all cultivars showed depressed quality scores and no differences were observed. With the onset of true autumn conditions in October, the number of excellent performing cultivars approximated the same number observed in the spring. These results confirm that a number of fineleaf fescue cultivars are now available whose performance begins to rival Kentucky bluegrass under Maine conditions and will certainly provide better long-term turf than will perennial ryegrass.

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P.G. Johnson

We investigated mixtures of buffalograss [Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. `Texoka' and `Cody'] and fine fescue species (Festuca rubra ssp. rubra L. `Vista', F. ovina var. glauca Lam. `Minotaur', F. rubra ssp. commutata Gaud. `Jamestown II') or stream-bank wheatgrass [Agropyron riparium Scribn. & Smith `Sodar'; syn. Elymus lanceolatus (Scribn. & Smith) Gould subsp. lanceolatus] as a low-maintenance turf with low irrigation requirements and season-long green color and growth. Buffalograss plots in Logan, Utah, were overseeded with fine fescue and streambank wheatgrass at two seeding rates. Plots of fine fescue, wheatgrass, or buffalograss alone were also established. At 50% evapotranspiration (ETo) replacement, fine fescues dominated the mixtures with no differences due to seeding rates. Wheatgrass mixture plots were unacceptable in quality. Buffalograss control plots and mixtures were similar for turfgrass quality in August, and fine fescue controls and mixtures were similar in spring and fall. The mixtures performed well in the low-maintenance turf situation, but dominance of fine fescue over the buffalograss limits the potential of these specific mixtures.

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L.R. Nelson, J. Crowder, and H.B. Pemberton

Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) has traditionally been used to overseed warm-season grasses in the southern U.S. when warm-season sods are dormant due to chilling temperatures. In this study we investigated overseeding turf-type annual ryegrass (two cultivars of L. multiflorum and one cultivar of L. rigidum) and chewing fescue (Festuca rubra var. commutata) as well as perennial ryegrass onto a warm-season common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) sod. The objective was to compare turf quality, turf color, and transition date of turf-type annuals with perennials and other cool-season grasses. Results for turf quality indicated that the annual ryegrass cultivars `Axcella' and `Panterra' (L. multiflorum) compared very well with perennials through March; however, in April and May, perennials were superior for quality. `Hardtop' fine fescue is a hard fescue (F. ovina var. duriuscula). It was inferior to the annuals for turf quality from December to April when the annuals began to die. For turf color, annuals had a lower rating compared to dark green perennials such as `Premier II', `Derby Supreme', or `Allstar'. `Panterra' was darker compared to `Axcella' in March and April. Chewing fescue was intermediate in color compared to annuals and perennials. For turf height, `Axcella' was taller than `Panterra', which were both taller than the perennials, and the fine fescues were shorter than the perennials. For transition in the spring, the annuals had a shorter transition and died about 1 month earlier than the perennials. `Transtar' (L. rigidum) had an earlier transition than the other annuals. The perennials tended to have a longer transition period. The fescues had a very long transition period and were similar to the perennials.