devastating for field-grown crops ( Kelly, 1991 ). Studies have been conducted to assess specialty cut flower cultivar performance in field production systems in the southeastern United States ( Starman et al., 1995 ). The productivity and profitability of
Michael A. Ortiz, Krystyna Hyrczyk, and Roberto G. Lopez
Brian A. Kahn
This review summarizes studies involving intercropping for field production of peppers [Capsicum spp. (typically Capsicum annuum)]. Intercropping is particularly important in developing countries and where arable land is limited. Fruit crops, vegetables, forages, and other crops representing over 12 botanical families have been intercropped with peppers. System recommendations may be affected by whether one is attempting to grow another species as an intercrop in a pepper field or whether peppers are being used as an intercrop in a different primary crop. Other factors such as the timing of the intercrop planting, climatic conditions, and local economics all contribute to the potential success or failure of intercropping with peppers. Although broad recommendations cannot be made, the reviewed studies offer several examples of successful combinations of peppers with other crops.
Lilac (Syringa vulgaris L) seedlings are commonly grown in many seedling nurseries in Michigan. Typically seedlings are lifted in the fall and stored prior to shipment or stored by the customer. A major problem in field production of lilacs is that seedlings often retain their leaves late in the fall. If the leaves are not removed prior to storage or shipment, the seedlings will mold and deteriorate. Therefore, growers must spend additional labor to remove the leaves, often by hand. The goal of this research was to evaluate chemical alternatives to defoliate lilac seedlings in field nurseries. Two on-farm research trials were conducted in 2001 and 2003 in cooperation with a seedling grower in Saugatuck, MI. In Experiment 1, Florel (1/2 and ¼ dilution) and chelated copper (0.5% and 1% solution) were sprayed by and onto lilac in the seedling bed. Florel and chelated copper effectively reduced leaf area of lilac seedlings. Less than 20% of the initial leaf area remained on the 1% copper and ½ Florel-treated seedlings. The ½ Florel and 1% chelated copper completely defoliated 67% and 40% of the seedlings, respectively, whereas only 17% on the control seedlings lost all their leaves prior to lifting. Both levels of Florel and the 1% copper treatment reduced growth of seedlings after planting. In experiment 2, we applied chelated copper treatments at varying rates (0.25% and 0.5%) and times (1 application and 2 applications) using the cooperators' spray equipment. Repeated applications of chelated copper were more effective in reducing seedling leaf area than a single application at both concentrations tested.
Suzette P. Galinato and Carol A. Miles
). The objectives of this study were to 1) compare the economic potential of growing lettuce and tomato in high tunnel and open-field production systems and 2) identify the main factors that affect the profitability of each crop within each production
Dewayne L. Ingram
significant contributor to GHG emissions in the field production of red maple was fuel consumption by farm machinery and truck transport of the finished product. That report also estimated the impact of altering certain production system protocols to reduce
W. Garrett Owen, Alyssa Hilligoss, and Roberto G. Lopez
yielded 8 and 17 stems/m 2 , respectively ( Table 3 ). Stems harvested in the high tunnel were on average 9.5 cm (15%) longer than those in the field. Compared with field production, high tunnel production yielded 120% more stems per square meter, had 13
Russell W. Wallace, Annette L. Wszelaki, Carol A. Miles, Jeremy S. Cowan, Jeffrey Martin, Jonathan Roozen, Babette Gundersen, and Debra A. Inglis
open-field production systems located under three contrasting regions within the United States where high tunnel lettuce production has until now been less common. Materials and methods The experimental field trials were conducted during late Winter and
Supplemental watering of shade trees in field production nurseries is needed, even in summer-rainfall climates, to achieve maximum growth. Scheduling the timing and amount of supplemental watering makes more efficient use of financial and water resources while maintaining maximum growth. Methods of scheduling supplemental watering based on uniform canopy and rooting in production agriculture must be modified, however, for shade trees in a production setting. Nursery trees are non-uniform in canopy and rooting compared to an agricultural crop. Applying the water budget method can be effective with sprinkler systems if tree water loss and rooting depth can be properly estimated. A measure of reference evapotranspiration and a species-specific multiplier are typically used to estimate water loss. Since species diversity in a field nursery is quite high, however, estimates of both tree transpiration and rooting depth must necessarily be simplified assumptions less accurate than for a uniform agricultural crop. If supplemental water is to be applied with drip irrigation, estimates of tree transpiration and soil water depletion need to be converted to volume units with information on total tree leaf area.
Brian A. Kahn, Niels O. Maness, Donna R. Chrz, and Lynda K. Carrier
—applied to the soil surface at two depths (equivalent to 2.5 or 5 cm) and then incorporated ≈5 to 7 cm deep for effects on field production of multiple cultivars of red radishes. Details of the larger study, including compost analyses, have been published
Andrey Vega-Alfaro, Carlos Ramírez-Vargas, Germán Chávez, Fernando Lacayo, Paul C. Bethke, and James Nienhuis
period ranged between 85% and 95% and 24 and 28 °C, respectively. Grafted plants were acclimatized for 1 week in a high-tunnel structure with an average daily temperature of 24.6 °C before transplanting. Open-field production environment A field