The review of effects of excessive soil water on performance of various vegetable crops and selected field crops indicates that in areas where temporary flooding hazards are expected during the growing season, crops can be selected on their relative ability to tolerate excessive moisture. Field crops are generally less sensitive than vegetable crops in terms of yield. In addition to the choice of crop species, planting dates could be shifted when possible by delaying dates of sowing or planting to avoid probable periods of flooding during the sensitive growth stages. In most instances, crops are more sensitive at their early developmental phase than at the later stages in terms of yield. Soil management practices like ridging and furrowing or making raised beds before planting is recommended. In addition, amelioration with foliar application of chemicals like nutrients, growth hormones and fungicides is also recommended to overcome nutritional deficiencies, hormonal imbalances and disease infections. Every effort of amelioration should be exerted at the earliest opportunity, since water damage to crops becomes more severe with longer flooding duration.
Renuka Rao and Yuncong Li
Stanley K. Ries, Terry L. Richman, and Violet F. Wert
The growth of several vegetable and field crops in the greenhouse was increased by applications of 1-triacontanol to the foliage, soil, or seed. Neither the seed nor soil treatments increased the yield of crops in the field. However, foliar sprays ranging from 5 to 500 mg/ha significantly increased the marketable yield of 7 of 10 crops tested. The average yield increase was based on comparisons of all the different rates and time of 1-triacontanol applications with untreated controls. The response of tomato, carrot and wheat seed treatments with 1-triacontanol was shown to be positively correlated with temperature at time of germination and early growth.
J.G. Clapp Jr.
Urea-triazone-based nitrogen (N) solutions were evaluated for potential leaf injury on agronomic and horticultural crops at 61 commercial grower sites throughout the United States. Poliar spray solutions containing triazone N were used at concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 15.7%. Safe N concentrations for urea-triazone-based N products ranged from 1.5% for crops such as sweet corn, apple, cherry, and pear, and up to 15.7% for nursery root stocks. Urea-triazone-based N solutions were found to be much safer on crop foliage than ammonium-, nitrate-, and/or all urea-based foliar fertilizer products than reported in the literature.
In-season soil nitrate testing is most useful when there is reason to believe, based on field history, that N availability may be adequate. These reasons may include soil organic matter content, applied manure, compost, legumes in the rotation, or residual N fertilizer. Soil nitrate testing is not helpful when crops are grown on sandy, low organic matter content soils that are known from experience to be N deficient. Soil nitrate testing is useful for annual crops such as vegetables or corn for which supplemental N fertilization is a concern. Soil nitrate tests must be performed at critical crop growth stages, and the results must be obtained rapidly to make important decisions about the need for N fertilization. Soil nitrate-N (NO3-N) concentrations in the range of 25 to 30 mg·kg-1 (ppm) indicate sufficiency for most crops, but N fertilizer practice should be adjusted based on local extension recommendations.
Michael T. Tesfaendrias, Mary Ruth McDonald, and Jon Warland
studies analyzed the relationship between weather parameters for extended periods and field crop yields such as wheat ( Chmielewski and Potts, 1995 ; Robertson, 1974 ), corn ( Anderson et al., 2001 ; Kucharik and Ramankutty, 2005 ), and legumes
Kevin M. Heinz, Polly A. Harding, Maria Julissa Ek-Ramos, Heather Hernandez, Peter C. Krauter, and Gregory A. Sword
) can also be inoculated as endophytes within various monocot and dicot crops, including bean, wheat, corn, pumpkin, tomato, and cotton. Endophytic fungi enhance plant growth in some field crops ( Jaber and Enkerli, 2017 ; Vega et al., 2009 ); however
Robin G. Brumfield
. Table 1. Greenhouse and nursery farm cash receipts for the 12 states that are located in the northeastern U.S. ( USDA, 2010 ). Unlike farmers who produce field crops, floricultural and nursery firms bear the entire price, market, and production risks
Gioia Massa, Thomas Graham, Tim Haire, Cedric Flemming II, Gerard Newsham, and Raymond Wheeler
canopy, spectral quality or composition can also have a significant influence ( McCree, 1971 ; Monteith and Unsworth, 2007 ; Niinemets, 2010 ). This is generally not a concern in field crop production where plants are grown under broad-spectrum sunlight
Joseph F. Guenthner
Vegetable producers and marketers make business decisions based on supply estimates. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture provides estimates of planting intentions for field crops but not for most vegetable crops. This study developed models that can be used to forecast vegetable crop plantings. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the factors that influence plantings of potatoes and onions. Field crop planting intentions, industry structure, lagged values of plantings, prices received, price volatility, and the price of sugar beets were found to be significant factors. The models and/or methods used in this study should be useful to those interested in forecasting vegetable plantings.
Amber N. Bates, Gerald M. Henry, and Cynthia B. McKenney
for the safe control of weeds present within hooker’s evening primrose when grown as an agronomic field crop. Enhanced weed control during early establishment may reduce competition for water and nutrients as well as increase seed yield and oil content