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Tran Kim Ngan Luong, Frank Forcella, Sharon A. Clay, Michael S. Douglass, and Sam E. Wortman

vehicle for improving the precision of in-season fertilizer management in organic cropping systems. The fertility benefits of abrasive grits are most pronounced when the weed efficacy of grit applications is maximized. Under conditions of intense weed

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G.J. Hochmuth

Fertilizer application by drip irrigation is becoming a common practice for many vegetable crops, especially in Florida. Vegetable producers view drip irrigation as a tool to reduce water use, increase fertilizer efficiency, and improve profits, while simultaneously reducing the potential risk to the environment due to nutrient enrichment of surface and groundwater. This paper presents the current Univ. of Florida recommendations for fertilizer management with drip irrigation for vegetables in Florida. These recommendations are based on more than 15 years of research on water and nutrient management with drip irrigation. Although these recommendations were developed for largely sandy soils from mostly Florida research, they should be easily adaptable for other U.S. vegetable regions on sandy soils.

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Reuben B. Beverly, Wojciech Florkowski, and John M. Ruter

In response to a mail survey of the landscape maintenance and lawn care (LM-LC) industry in metropolitan Atlanta, we learned that 76% of respondents fertilized lawns and turf and 68% fertilized ornamental beds. Less than one-fourth of those who provided fertilization services offered an organic fertility option; for those who reported an organic option, an average of 25% of their residential customers used such a service. Complete fertilizers (N-P2O5-K2O), ammonium nitrate, urea, and N solutions were the products applied by most respondents. Average amounts of N per application were ≈1.5 lb/1000 ft2 on lawns and 1.1 lb/1000 ft2 on ornamentals. Of firms that provide fertilization services, 88% use a predetermined application schedule, whereas 88% use visual observation and 69% use soil testing to guide fertilizer management. Only 5% reported using tissue analysis as a fertilizer management strategy. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied most frequently in the spring, with nearly equal amounts applied in summer and fall. Phosphorus was applied most commonly in the fall or spring. Relatively few firms reported applying significant amounts of either N or P in winter. Most respondents indicated that they received adequate information about fertilizers, but few received information about organic fertilization. Commercial sales representatives and trade magazines were cited most often as sources of information; university specialists were the least-cited formal source of information concerning fertilization. We have suggested some research and educational issues to be addressed based on these results.

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K.M Whitley and J.R Davenport

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) production in Washington State's Central Columbia Plateau faces nitrogen (N) management challenges due to the combination of coarse textured soils (sandy loam to loam) and hilly topography in this region as well as the high N requirement of potato. Potato growth and development can vary with the N availability across the field. In this 2-year study, two adjacent potato fields were selected each year (1999 and 2000). Each field was soil sampled on a 200 × 200 ft (61.0 m) grid to establish existing soil N content. One field was preplant fertilized with variable N rate while the other was conventionally preplant fertilized, applying a uniform rate across the field based on the field average. During the growing season, each field was monitored for nitrate leaching potential using ion exchange membrane technology. Soil and plant nutrient status were also monitored by collecting in-season petiole and soil samples at two key phenological stages, tuber initiation and tuber bulking. Overall this research showed that variable rate preplant N fertilizer management reduced N leaching potential during the early part of the growing season, but did not persist the entire season. Since preplant N accounted for only 40% of the total seasonal N applied, it is possible that further gains could be made with variable rate in-season N application or with variable rate water application.

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Richard O. Carey, George J. Hochmuth, Christopher J. Martinez, Treavor H. Boyer, Vimala D. Nair, Michael D. Dukes, Gurpal S. Toor, Amy L. Shober, John L. Cisar, Laurie E. Trenholm, and Jerry B. Sartain

of this review were to 1) summarize the major fertilizer sources and specific fertilizer management practices that can affect N and P cycling and exports from turfgrass and vegetated landscapes in urban watersheds, 2) discuss water quality impacts

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Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva, Joara Secchi Candian, Lincoln Zotarelli, Timothy Coolong, and Christian Christensen

, G. 2017 Soil and fertilizer management, p. 8–12. In: T. Coolong (ed.). Commercial production and management of cabbage and leafy greens. Univ. Georgia Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 1181 Hara, T. Sonoda, Y. 1982 Cabbage-head development as affected by

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Handell Larco, Bernadine C. Strik, David R. Bryla, and Dan M. Sullivan

fertilizer management practices for organic production of highbush blueberry. I: Plant growth and allocation of biomass during establishment HortScience 48 1250 1261 Larco, H.O. 2010 Effect of planting method, weed management, and fertilizer on plant growth

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Kathryn M. Santos, Paul R. Fisher, and William R. Argo

The objective of this study was to quantify water volume and nutrient content leached during propagation of herbaceous cuttings in commercial greenhouses. Nutrient concentrations in the fertigation solution, substrate, tissue, and leachate were measured between Jan. and Mar. 2006 at eight greenhouse locations in Michigan, Colorado, New Hampshire, and New Jersey. Grower management of the timing and concentration of nutrients applied to vegetatively grown calibrachoa (Calibrachoa ×hybrida) or petunia (Petunia ×hybrida) liner trays varied among the eight locations, ranging from 0.5 to 80 mg·L−1 nitrogen (N) in week 1 and from 64 to 158 mg·L−1 N in week 4. Over a 4-week crop period, applied nutrients averaged 4.9 g·m−2 N, 0.8 g·m−2 phosphorus (P), and 5.8 g·m−2 potassium (K), and leached nutrients averaged 1.1 g·m−2 N, 0.3 g·m−2 P, and 1.6 g·m−2 K. Leaching of nutrients and irrigation water was highly variable among locations. Leached water volumes ranged from 4.5 to 46.1 L·m−2 over 4 weeks and contained 0.29 to 1.81 g·m−2 N, 0.11 to 0.45 g·m−2 P, and 0.76 to 2.86 g·m−2 K. The broad range in current commercial fertigation practices, including timing of nutrient supply, concentration of applied fertilizer, and leaching volume, indicate considerable potential to improve efficiency of water and fertilization resources during propagation and reduce runoff.

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Proceedings of the Workshop Fertilizer Management in Horticultural Crops: Implications for Water Pollution

held at the 88th ASHS Annual Meeting The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 24 July 1991

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Georges T. Dodds, Leif Trenholm, and Chandra A. Madramootoo

In a 2-year study (1993-1994), `New Yorker' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown in field lysimeters were subjected to four watertable depth (WTD) treatments (0.3, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 m from the soil surface) factorially combined with 5 potassium/calcium fertilization combinations. Mature-green fruit from four replicates of each treatment were stored at 5C for 21 days, and fruit color was monitored with a tristimulus colorimeter. Fruit were subsequently allowed to ripen at 20C for 10 days, at which time chilling injury was assessed on the basis of delayed ripening and area of lesions. Potassium and calcium applied in the field had no effect on chilling tolerance of the fruit. In the drier year (1993), shallower WTD treatments generally yielded fruit that changed color less during chilling and were more chilling-sensitive based on delayed ripening. In the wetter year, differences in color change and chilling tolerance between WTD, if any, were small. Over both years, lesion area varied with WTD, but not in a consistent manner. Based on these results, we suggest that differences in water availability should be considered when studying tomato fruit chilling.