The effects of fertilizer placement and soil moisture level on soil N movement, uptake, and use by tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) grown with drip irrigation and plastic mulch were evaluated at two locations on two types of sandy soils. Broadcast or band fertilizer placement had no effect on fruit size, fruit number, or total yield. Fruit size was increased at one location, and the incidence of blossom-end rot was decreased by increased frequency of irrigation. Nitrate-N distribution within the bed was not affected by initial N placement. In the soil with a rapid infiltration rate, NO3-N levels in the center of the bed were always low, with highest concentration observed in the areas of the bed most distant from the drip tube. In the soil with the slower infiltration rate, NO3-N concentrations were more uniform throughout the bed, with highest concentrations in the bed center: Increasing soil moisture levels (–20 kPa vs. –30 kPa) resulted in increased leaching and reduced NO3-N concentration throughout the bed. Foliage N concentration was not affected by N placement, but decreased seasonally. Total N uptake by the above-ground portion of the plants was not affected by fertilizer placement or soil moisture level.
Wilton P. Cook and Douglas C. Sanders
Timothy K. Broschat
predominant grass weed, torpedograss, spreads vegetatively through underground stolons as opposed to seedlings, which can be suppressed by mulches. In general, mulch type had no effect on the numbers of any type of weed. Likewise, fertilizer placement above or
David L. Trinka and Marvin P. Pritts
Micropropagated (MP) raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. var. idaeus) are sensitive to moisture and temperature extremes and to certain preemergent herbicides used at transplanting. We examined fertilizer placement and row covers in conjunction with various weed management strategies to identify beneficial practices for newly planted, MP primocane-fruiting `Heritage' raspberries. Uncontrolled weed growth during plant establishment inhibited raspberry cane growth and production into the second and third growing seasons. Handweeding and herbicide treatments successfully controlled weeds, but soil moisture was apparently insufficient for optimum growth of the MP raspberries when these treatments were imposed, even with normal rainfall in early summer and drip irrigation in late summer. Polyethylene and straw mulches during the establishment year provided both weed control and adequate soil moisture, resulting in more cane growth in the first and 2nd year, and higher yields the 2nd year. Primocane density after the third growing season still was influenced by first-year weed management practices. Raspberry plants responded best to straw mulch without row covers as plant growth was better in both years. Canes were thicker, yields were higher, and a larger portion of the total crop was harvested early. Row covers were beneficial only in bare-soil treatments, and method of fertilizer placement had no effect on any measured variable. Mulching newly transplanted MP raspberries is an alternative to herbicide use that also provides physiological benefits to the plant through microclimate modification.
DESMOND MORTLEY, V. KHAN, C. BONSI and E. RHODEN
Fertilizer placement under plastic was studied on 2 tomato cultivars (`TI-130' and `Floradade') during 1989. Treatments were 1, 2 or 3 increments of fertilizer broadcast, banded, broadcast/banded of banded with 1 or 2 sidedressings and a check. Fertilizer applied was NPK at 135-90-84 kg·ha-1 as a ammonium nitrate, triple superphosphate and muriate of potash, 10cm to each side of the plants and 10cm deep. Vine, total, marketable and early yields for lower rates either Br or Ba were as good as those of the full rate Br or Ba with 2 sidedressings (Ba/SD2). Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg for `TI-130' were not affected by placement. The Ba/SD2 placement Increased leaf N for `Floradade' but leaf Ca was reduced in all treatments vs the check. Leaf Mn was increased markedly by placements involving broadcasting at all rates.
D.G. Mortley, C.B. Smith and K.T. Demchak
The effects of fertilizer placement on growth and nutrient uptake of `Count II' tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were evaluated in a 3-year study. Fertilizer was applied broadcast at two rates or banded in two bands at two widths or in four bands, or applied in combinations of sidedressing or broadcasting with banding of N, P, and K at 56, 112, or 224 kg·ha-1 each. Total fruit yield for the 112 kg·ha-1 banded treatment was 24% higher than that for the same rate broadcast and similar to yield for 224 kg·ha-1 broadcast. Treatments involving combined placements, wider bands, or four bands produced yields similar to that for 112 kg·ha-1 banded, but the 56 kg·ha-1 banded with two 56 kg·ha-1 sidedressings had the highest yield. Leaf concentrations and plant contents of N, P, and K and percentage recovery of quantities applied were generally higher in treatments involving banding or sidedressing when compared to broadcasting. Leaf Mn was much higher in banded or sidedressed than for broadcast treatments but was lower when 112 kg·ha-1 was applied in four bands than in two. Only with Mg and Mn were leaf concentrations and plant contents highly correlated. With 112 kg·ha-1 banded, 31.2% of the N, 5.8% of the P, and 44.7% of the K applied were taken up, compared to 12.5%, 2.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, for double this rate broadcast.
Glenn B. Fain and Patricia R. Knight
On 24 Apr. 2003, 3-gallon (11.4-liter) Quercus shumardii were potted into 13.2-gallon (50-liter) containers using a standard nursery mix. Treatment design was a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial with two fertilizer placements, three irrigation methods, and two herbicide rates. Controlled-release fertilizer 17N–2.9P–9.8K was dibbled (placed 10.2 cm below the surface of the container media at potting) or top-dressed at a rate of 280 grams per container. Irrigation was applied using one of three methods: 1) a spray stake attached to a 3-gallon- (11.4-L-) per-hour pressure compensating drip emitter; 2) a surface-applied pressure-compensating drip ring delivering water at a rate of 2.3 gallons (8.9-L) per hour; and 3) the same drip ring placed 4 inches (10.2 cm) below the container substrate surface. A granular preemergent herbicide (oxyfluorfen + oryzalin) was applied at 2.0 + 1.0 lb/acre (2.24 + 1.12 kg·ha-1). At 75 days after treatment (DAT), containers with no herbicide and top-dressed fertilizer had a percent weed coverage of 46% compared to 18% for dibbled containers with no herbicide. At 180 DAT weed top dry weight was greater for top-dressed containers compared to dibbled. None of the treatments in the study had any effect on height increase. At 240 DAT, trees irrigated with drip rings at the surface had a 28% greater caliper increase among the dibbled fertilizer-treated containers. Trees irrigated with the drip ring placed below the surface and fertilizer top-dressed had the smallest caliper increase. Irrigation method had no effect on weed control in this study; however, a repeat fall application showed a significantly greater weed control with the drip ring below surface compared to the spray stake.
S. Christopher Marble, Stephen A. Prior, G. Brett Runion, H. Allen Torbert, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn B. Fain, Jeff L. Sibley and Patricia R. Knight
mitigation strategies for nursery production practices to help growers adapt to possible future legislation and benefit from C trading or offset programs. One method of GHG mitigation that has been previously investigated is fertilizer placement in
Tyler C. Hoskins, James S. Owen Jr. and Alex X. Niemiera
) evaluated the effect of fertilizer placement on crop quality and weed growth in containers. They found a species-specific response in crop growth to the placement of CRFs and less weed growth in treatments using dibbled CRF (i.e., all fertilizer placed
R.M. Mirabello, A.E. Einert and G.L. Klingaman
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of mulch material and fertilizer application method on nutrient availability in a landscape situation. Beds containing four mulch materials (pine bark, cypress pulp, pine straw, and cottonseed hulls) and three fertilizer application methods (granule, liquid, and time release) were established. Fertilizer placement included application either above or below the mulch horizon. Beds with and without mulch cover and no fertilization were established as controls. Marigolds, Tagetes erecta `Hybrid Gold', were planted within the beds. Plants in unmulched or fertilized control beds had greater dry weights than plants in beds with mulch alone. Only plants grown in the cottonseed hull control demonstrated a slight improvement and cottonseed hulls demonstrated the best plant performance overall. The greater nitrogen content of cottonseed hulls may influence less immobilization of nitrogen in the soil solution during decomposition and reduce competition for nutrients between microorganisms and plants. Fertilization improved plant growth in all treatments except pine bark. Beds using pine bark showed significant reduction in plant dry matter accumulation. Potential toxicity or changes in soil chemistry by pine bark may have influenced these results and will be examined in further experiments. Fertilizer placement had no effect on plant growth.
Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly K. Moore
In two experiments, chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), bamboo palm (Chamaedorea seifrizii), areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), fishtail palm (Caryota mitis), macarthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), shooting star (Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum), downy jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum), plumbago (Plumbago auriculata), alexandra palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae), and foxtail palm (Wodyetia bifurcata) were transplanted into 6.2-L (2-gal) containers. They were fertilized with Osmocote Plus 15N-3.9P-10K (12-to14-month formulation) (Expt. 1) or Nutricote Total 18N-2.6P-6.7K (type 360) (Expt. 2) applied by either top dressing, substrate incorporation, or layering the fertilizer just below the transplanted root ball. Shoot dry weight, plant color, root dry weights in the upper and lower halves of the root ball, and weed shoot dry weight were determined when each species reached marketable size. Optimal fertilizer placement method varied among the species tested. With the exception of areca palm, none of the species tested grew best with incorporated fertilizer. Root dry weights in the lower half of the root ball for chinese hibiscus, bamboo palm, and downy jasmine were greatest when the fertilizer was layered and root dry weights in the upper half of the root ball were greatest for top-dressed chinese hibiscus. Weed growth was lower in pots receiving layered fertilizer for four of the six palm species tested.