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N. M. El-Hout

Band placement has been recognized as an effective strategy for improving P fertilizer-use efficiency on Histosols, which are often characterized as environmentally sensitive wetlands, and for reducing P loading of drainage waters from these soils. Recent studies indicate that crisphead lettuce (Lacruca sativa L.) yields can be optimized with a band-P rate one-third of that required with broadcast applications. However, such findings have not been verified in large production plots. Five field experiments were conducted between 1991 and 1993 to evaluate the response of crisphead lettuce produced commercially on Histosols to band P rates. Liquid P fertilizers were placed in lo-cm-wide strips, 8.5-cm below the seed at planting in rates ranging from 0 to 224 kg P ha-1. Lettuce yields increased significantly with P rate in all experiments. Irrespective of initial soil-test-P index, lettuce yields within each experiment were maximized with a band rate 54% of that required in a broadcast. The pooled data for all experiments showed a similar trend. These findings provided a means of making alternative band fertilizer recommendations by utilizing an existing preplant broadcast soil test.

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Robert F. Bevacqua and Dawn M. VanLeeuwen

Chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yields are highly variable and are strongly influenced by disease and weather. The goal of two field experiments was to evaluate crop management factors, especially planting date, that could contribute to improved and more consistent crop production. Current practice in New Mexico is to direct seed the crop from 13 to 27 Mar. In the first experiment, chile pepper was direct seeded on three planting dates, 13, 20, and 27 Mar. 2000, without or with a fungicide treatment of pentachloronitrobenzene and mefenoxam for the control of damping off. The results indicate planting date had no effect on stand establishment or yield. Fungicide treatment, significantly reduced stand, but had no effect on yield. In the second experiment, chile pepper was direct seeded on six planting dates, 13, 20, 27 Mar. and 3, 10, 17, Apr. 2001, with or without an application of phosphorus fertilizer, P at 29.4 kg·ha-1, banded beneath the seed row. During the growing season, this experimental planting suffered, as did commercial plantings in New Mexico, from high mortality and stunting due to beet curly top virus, a disease transmitted by the beet leafhopper. The results indicate planting date had a significant effect on crop performance. The best stand establishment and highest yield were associated with the earliest planting date, 13 Mar. This date also resulted in the least viral disease damage. Phosphorus fertilizer had no effect on stand establishment or yield. Chemical names used: pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB); (R)-2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-methoxyacetylamino]-propionic acid methyl ester (mefenoxam).

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C. A. Mullins and R. A. Straw

`Blue Ridge' snap beans were planted with no fertilizer or banded rates of 560 kg ha-1 of a 10-4.4-8.3 fertilizer on soils with medium fertility in 1990 and 1991. Foliar applications of water soluble fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were made at early bloom and in split applications at early bloom and repeated 10 days later. No response to fertilizer banded at planting or to foliar nutrient applications was found in snap bean yields or pod quality. Most fertilizer applications at planting increased plant size and lodging in 1990, but not in 1991. With the use of a rotation schedule and winter cover crops, snap beans showed no response to fertilization on soils of medium fertility.

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V.A. Khan, C. Stevens, M.A. Wilson, J.Y. Lu, E.G. Rhoden, D.J. Collins, and J.E. Brown

In 1994, a study was conducted in split-plot design to determine the effect single- and double-row plantings would have on the yield of five sweetpotato cultivars. `TU-1892', `Carver', `Jewel', `TU-82-155', and `Georgia Jet' were planted on a raised shaped bed 2 feet wide. All recommended fertilizers were banded in the center of the bed and plants then were placed 6 inches away on both sides of this band for the double rows; single rows consisted of plants placed only on one side of the fertilizer band. Plants were spaced 12 inches apart within rows, and the rate of fertilizer used for single and double rows was the recommended rate for single rows. All plots were sidedressed with an additional 80 lbs/acre of K at the time of flowering. Marketable yield data showed that double-row planting of `Jewel', `TU-82-155', and `TU-1892' resulted in 36%, 38%, and 33% significant increase in yield, respectively, compared to single-row plantings. Double-row planting also significantly increased the yield of U.S. no. 1 `TU-82-155', `Jewel', and `Carver' sweetpotatoes by 40%, 43%, and 19%, respectively. All cultivars used in the study showed a significant increase in canners yield when planted in double vs. single rows. The results also indicated that `TU-1892', `Jewel', and `TU-82-155' may be more efficient in fertilizer use because higher yields were obtained in double-row plantings at the single-row fertilizer rates without the additional application of fertilizers.

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Melissa L. Wilson, Carl J. Rosen, and John F. Moncrief

day of planting. This treatment was intended to simulate a preplant application of PCU. Agrium PCU was buried at planting on 26 Apr. to the depth of the fertilizer band (≈25 cm) to simulate a banded PCU application. Kingenta PCU mesh bags were then

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Aline Coelho Frasca, Monica Ozores-Hampton, John Scott, and Eugene McAvoy

fertilizer was broadcast as a “bottom mix” and applied on two fertilizer bands on the bed shoulders as the “top mix” ( Olson et al., 2010 ) for a total nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium (N–P–K) of 207–49–344 kg·ha −1 . Sources of dry fertilizer were ammonium

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Juan Carlos Diaz-Perez, W. Keith Jenkins, Dharmalingam Pitchay, and Gunawati Gunawan

, D.D. 2005 Soil moisture and temperature effects on nitrogen release from organic nitrogen sources Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 69 1844 1855 Allred, S.E. Ohlrogge, A.H. 1964 Principles of nutrient uptake from fertilizer bands. VI. Germination and emergence

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Humberto Núñez-Moreno, James L. Walworth, Andrew P. Pond, and Michael W. Kilby

tree row received two fertilizer bands, one on each side of the row. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. Each plot consisted of one row of 15 trees (n = 12). Every experimental plot was separated by one buffer

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Monica Ozores-Hampton, Eric Simonne, Fritz Roka, Kelly Morgan, Steven Sargent, Crystal Snodgrass, and Eugene McAvoy

commercial production. After fertilizer application, the beds were fumigated with methyl bromide and chloropicrin (67:33, w:w) at the rate of 336 kg·ha −1 . The position of the shanks used to inject the fumigant did not affect the integrity of the fertilizer

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Michael F. Polozola II, Daniel E. Wells, J. Raymond Kessler, Wheeler G. Foshee, Amy N. Wright, and Bryan S. Wilkins

HortScience 21 451 452 Sparks, D. 1988 Growth and nutritional status of pecan in response to phosphorus J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 113 850 859 Stecker, J.A. Brown, J.R. Kitchen, N.R. 2001 Residual phosphorus distribution and sorption in starter fertilizer bands