Plants grown on calcareous soils often exhibit symptoms of Fe-deficiency induced chlorosis despite a high content of total Fe in the leaf tissue. Iron is transported in the xylem primarily as the ferric citrate (Fe-Citr) chelate, and changes in pH, HCO - 3, and Citr can lead to the formation of different Fe-Citr species. Understanding how Fe dissociates from these chelates may help explain why Fe is immobilized in the leaves. The goal was to quantify Fe mobilization (Fe-Mob) from Fe-Citr in an assay system buffered at pH 5, 6, or 7 when: 1) the molar ratio of HCO - 3 to Fe increased in a 1 Fe: 1 Citr system; 2) the molar ratio of Citr increased in a 1 Fe: 3 HCO - 3 system; and 3) solutions were photoreduced (PR) or left in the dark. For non-PR solutions, Fe-Mob from Fe-Citr using 500 μmol NADH was the greatest at the 1 Fe: 0 HCO - 3-level, and decreased as HCO - 3 increased. Fe-Mob also decreased as buffer pH increased from 5 to 7. Increasing the Citr ratio was effective in increasing Fe-Mob, but the effect decreased as buffer pH increased from 5 to 7. PR solutions behaved quite differently. In the 1 Fe: 1 Citr system, little to no Fe-Mob was detected at any buffer pH. However, there were already large pools of Fe2+ in solution, which decreased as HCO - 3 increased, irrespective of buffer pH. Increasing the Citr ratio greatly increased Fe-Mob in the 1 Fe: 3 HCO - 3 system, and mobilization decreased as buffer pH increased. Increasing Citr did not increase the amount of Fe2+ in solution. This work illustrates that increasing the HCO - 3: Fe ratio can lead to an immobilization of Fe, and that increasing the Citr ratio can aid in Fe-Mob from Fe-Citr when the HCO - 3: Fe ratio is high. Increasing the Citr ratio, however, does not increase the amount of PR Fe2+.
Brandon R. Smith and Lailiang Cheng
Timothy K. Broschat
`Petite Yellow' dwarf ixoras (Ixora spp.) were grown in an alkaline substrate (3 limestone gravel: 2 coir dust) or a poorly aerated composted seaweed substrate to induce iron (Fe) chlorosis. Chlorotic plants were fertilized every 2 months with soil applications of 0.1 g (0.0035 oz) Fe per 2.4-L (0.63-gal) pot using ferrous sulfate, ferric diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (FeDTPA), ferric ethylenediaminedi-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (FeEDDHA), Hampshire Iron (FeHEDTA plus FeEDTA), ferric citrate, iron glucoheptonate, or DisperSul Iron (sulfur plus ferrous sulfate). Additional chlorotic ixoras growing in a substrate of 3 sedge peat: 2 cypress sawdust: 1 sand were treated every 2 months with foliar sprays of Fe at 0.8 g·L-1 (0.11 oz/gal) from ferrous sulfate, FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, ferric citrate, or iron glucoheptonate. Only chelated Fe sources significantly improved ixora chlorosis when applied to the soil, regardless of whether the chlorosis was induced by an alkaline substrate or a poorly aerated one. As a foliar spray, only FeDTPA was effective in improving chlorosis in dwarf ixora. Leaf Fe content either showed no relationship to plant color or was negatively correlated with plant chlorosis ratings.
Timothy K. Broschat and Monica L. Elliott
Foxtail palms (Wodyetia bifurcata Irvine) were grown in 6.2-L containers using a 3 calcitic limestone gravel: 2 coir dust (by volume) substrate to induce Fe chlorosis. Plants were treated initially and 2 and 4 months later with soil applications of FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, FeEDTA+FeHEDTA on vermiculite, FeEDTA+FeDTPA on clay, ferric citrate, ferrous ammonium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferrous sulfate+sulfur, or iron glucoheptonate at a rate of 0.2 g Fe/container. Similar plants were treated initially and 2 and 4 months later with foliar sprays of FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, ferric citrate, ferrous sulfate, or iron glucoheptonate at a rate of 0.8 g Fe/L. After 6 months, palms receiving soil applications of FeEDDHA, FeEDTA+FeHEDTA on vermiculite, FeDTPA, or FeEDTA+FeDTPA on clay had significantly less chlorosis than plants receiving other soil-applied Fe fertilizers or untreated control plants. Palms treated with foliar Fe fertilizers had chlorosis ratings similar to untreated control plants. Palms with the most severe Fe chlorosis also had the highest levels of leaf spot disease caused by Exserohilum rostratum (Drechs.) K.J. Leonard & E.G. Suggs. Neither chlorosis severity nor leaf spot severity was correlated with total leaf Fe concentration.
Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly K. Moore
Zonal geraniums (Pelargonium ×hortorum) from seed and african marigolds (Tagetes erecta), which are known to be highly susceptible to Fe toxicity problems, were grown with I, 2, 4, or 6 mm Fe from ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate, FeEDTA, FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, ferric glucoheptonate, or ferrous ammonium sulfate in the subirrigation solution. FeEDTA and FeDTPA were highly toxic to both species, even at the 1 mm rate. Ferrous sulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate caused no visible toxicity symptoms on marigolds, but did reduce dry weights with increasing Fe concentrations. Both materials were slightly to moderately toxic on zonal geraniums. FeEDDHA was only mildly toxic at the 1 mm concentration on both species, but was moderately toxic at the 2 and 4 mm concentrations. Substrate pH was generally negatively correlated with geranium dry weight and visible phytotoxicity ratings, with the least toxic materials, ferrous sulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate, resulting in the lowest substrate pHs and the chelates FeEDTA, FeDTPA, and FeEDDHA the highest pH. The ionic Fe sources, ferrous sulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate, suppressed P uptake in both species, whereas the Fe chelates did not. Fe EDDHA should be considered as an effective and less toxic alternative for the widely used FeEDTA and FeDTPA in the production of these crops.
R. Fernández-Escobar, D. Barranco and M. Benlloch
Chlorotic `Manzanillo' olive (Olea europaea L.) trees and `Maycrest' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees were injected with Fe solutions using an apparatus that consisted of a plastic injector and a pressurized latex tube containing the solution to be injected. Injections were made on various dates from Sept. 1987 to July 1988. All treatments increased chlorophyll content compared to that of the control. Ferrous sulfate was the most effective Fe compound in alleviating chlorosis; its effect lasted for two seasons in peach and for at least three seasons in olive. Also, ferrous sulfate increased vegetative growth and affected cropping the year following injections. Ferrous sulfate at 0.5% to 1% is recommended to reduce the risk of foliar burning. The injection method effectively introduced Fe compounds into olive and peach trees.
L. Zhang, J.R. Livingstone, Y. Tarui and E. Hirasawa
ammonium dihydrogenphosphate, 1.02 m m magnesium sulfate, 6.7 μ m ferric citrate, 6.6 μ m manganese sulfate, 3.2 μ m boric acid, 0.7 μ m zinc sulfate, 0.08 μ m copper sulfate, and 0.08 μ m sodium molybdenum oxide. The pH of the solution was adjusted
hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid (Fe-HEDTA), and ferric ethylenediamintetraacetic acid (Fe-DTPA), or combinations have shown a very effective reduction in chlorosis compared with plants receiving other soil fertilizers such as ferric citrate, ferrous ammonium sulfate, FeSO 4