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Prem L. Bhalla and Katherine Tozer

Plants of genus Scaevola (family, Goodeniaceae), commonly known as “fan flowers,” are mostly endemic to Australia. Commercially popular species are Scaevola aemula, S. albida, S. striata, and S. phlebopetala. These plants are used as ground covers in Australia and as hanging baskets, window boxes, and garden bed plants in Europe and America. Two aspects of in vitro culture of Scaevola are reported here; micropropagation and direct shoot regeneration. A number of commercially available cultivars of S. aemula, S. phlebopetala, S. striata and wild-collected S. phlebopetala, S. glandulifera, S. hookeri, and S. ramonissima were used for micropropagation experiments. Micropropagation medium contained salts, vitamins, L-cysteine, sucrose, and agar. Tissue-cultured shoots were rooted in hormone-free medium. A high survival percentage (>95%) was obtained when plants were transferred to soil under glasshouse conditions. Results on in vitro shoot induction and regeneration response of leaf, stem, root, node, and flower explants of two horticulturally important species of the Australian fan flower, Scaevola aemula and Scaevola striata arealso presented. Of all the explants tested, node explants of these species were the first to respond in tissue culture. Maximum number of shoot induction and regeneration was achieved from node explants of Scaevola aemula and node and stem explants of Scaevola striata. More than 95% of the regenerated shoots were rooted on the medium supplemented with 4 mg/L of IBA. The significance of above findings in assisting breeding program for new horticultural desirable cultivars of Australian fan flowers will be discussed.

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Stephanie E. Burnett, Donglin Zhang, Lois B. Stack, and Zhongqi He

Fan flower is an herbaceous member of Goodeniaceae native to western Australia ( Armitage, 1997 , 2001 ). Stems are procumbent and plants have bluish purple or white flowers with petals on only one side of the pedicel that form in leaf axils and

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Terri W. Starman and Millie S. Williams

The effects of concentration and method of application of uniconazole on growth and flowering of Scaevola aemula R. Br. `New Wonder', `Mini Pink Fan', `Purple Fan', and `Royal Fan', Scaevola albida (Sm.) Druce. `White Fan', and Scaevola striata `Colonial Fan' were studied, as was the efficacy of four other growth retardants on S. aemula `New Wonder'. Variables measured included plant width, flower stem number, flower stem length, flower number per stem, flower number per cm stem length, and days to flower. Uniconazole (1.0 mg·L–1) applied as a medium drench to S. aemula `New Wonder' reduced plant width and flower stem length without affecting flower stem number or time to flower. Flower number per stem and number of flowers per cm of stem length were increased, resulting in attractive, compact clusters of flowers. Paclobutrazol medium drench at 4.0 mg·L–1 gave similar results. Daminozide and ethephon sprays reduced plant width; however, flower number was reduced and ethephon delayed flowering. Ancymidol did not affect the parameters measured. When uniconazole drenches were applied to the other cultivars, plant width and flower stem length in all cultivars except `White Fan' decreased as rate increased. Spray applications reduced plant width of all cultivars except `Mini Pink Fan'. Flower stem length was not affected in any cultivar. Flowering habit was improved more in S. aemula `New Wonder', `Purple Fan', and `Royal Fan' than in the other cultivars. Chemical names used: α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon); β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); (E)-(s)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethy-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pent-1-ene-3-ol (uniconazole).

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Terri Starman and Leonardo Lombardini

A study was conducted to characterize the morphological and physiological responses of four herbaceous perennial species subjected to two subsequent drought cycles. Lantana camara L. `New Gold' (lantana), Lobelia cardinalis L. (cardinal flower), Salvia farinacea Benth. `Henry Duelberg' (mealy sage), and Scaevola aemula R. Br. `New Wonder' (fan flower) were subjected to two consecutive 10-day drought cycles. Growth response, leaf gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured during the experiment. The morphology of L. cardinalis and L. camara was not affected by drought, while S. farinacea had reductions in plant height and leaf area and S. aemula had reductions in dry weight. Overall, plant growth and development continued even when substrate water content was reduced to 0.13 mm3·mm-3, which indicated a level of substrate water below container capacity was sufficient for greenhouse production of these species. The drought treatments had little effect on the photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of Photosystem II. An increase in minimal fluorescence (Fo) was observed in S. aemula on the last day of the second cycle. Drought treatment caused increased leaf-level water use efficiency (WUE) at the end of the first cycle in L. cardinalis and S. aemula, but not in L. camara and S. farinacea. Plants of L. camara, S. farinacea, and S. aemula that had received drought during both cycles became more water use efficient by the end of the second cycle, but L. cardinalis did not.

Open access

Amanda Bayer

timings of drought cycle ( Starman and Lombardini, 2006 ). ‘Henry Duelberg’ mealycup sage ( Salvia farinacea ) and ‘New Wonder’ fan-flower ( Scaevola aemula ) exposed to the same irrigation treatments showed a species-specific response. The timing and

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Shuyang Zhen, Stephanie E. Burnett, Michael E. Day, and Marc W. van Iersel

, including gaura, petunia ( Petunia × hybrida ), coral bells, dusty miller ( Cineraria maritima ), plumbago ( Plumbago auriculata ), fan flower ( Scaevola aemula ), and zonal geranium ( Pelargonium ×hortorum ), have shown similar reductions in shoot biomass

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Shuyang Zhen and Stephanie E. Burnett

.2 L·L −1 . Many other ornamental plants, including gaura, scarlet sage, coral bells, zonal geranium ( Pelargonium × hortorum ), fan flower ( Scaevola aemula ), and petunia, have reduced shoot dry weight when grown under drought ( Burnett and van

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Yanjun Guo, Terri Starman, and Charles Hall

( Gardenia jasminoides ), english lavender ( Lavandula angustifolia ), fan flower ( Scaevola aemula ), geranium ( Pelargonium zonale ), impatiens ( Impatiens walleriana ), oleander ( Nerium oleander L.), big bend bluebonnet ( Lupinus havardii ), dusty miller

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Josiah Raymer, Mack Thetford, and Debbie L. Miller

with successive increases in stock plant height after each harvest. Over a 23-week period, cutting quantity and quality of fan flower ( Scaevola ) cuttings were shown to increase over time as N fertilization concentration increased from 100 to 300 mg

Open access

Mary Vargo and James E. Faust

example, Donnelly and Fisher (2002) reported a 73% increase in the total number of viable cuttings harvested from fan flower ( Scaevola aemula ) stock plants when supplemental lighting from high-pressure sodium lamps delivered a DLI of 2.8 mol·m –2 ·d –1