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Edward F. Gilman, Gary W. Knox, Catherine A. Neal, and Uday Yadav

Lagertroemia indica L. × fauriei Koehne (`Natchez' crape myrtle) crown width increased after 13 months as irrigation frequency increased from every 3 days to every day, and the irrigated area around the fabric container increased from 20% to 100% of the circular area within 20 cm beyond the container. Restricting irrigation to within the fabric container plus 20% of the area 20 cm beyond the container edge resulted in less height and width for crape myrtle, but had no effect on root growth, compared to irrigating 100% of area 20 cm beyond the container. Restricting the pattern of irrigation to the container plus 20% of the area 20 cm beyond the container resulted in greater free-root weight (roots < 5 mm in diameter) within the container for laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia Michx.) compared to irrigating the container plus 100% of the area 20 cm beyond the container. Height, width, and caliper of oak were not different among treatments.

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Janet C. Cole, Roger Kjelgren, and David L. Hensley

Nursery crops have traditionally been grown in the field and harvested as balled and burlapped or bareroot plants or grown in above-ground containers. A relatively recent product, the in-ground fabric container, has allowed producers to combine advantages of field production with those of container production. The effect of these containers on plant growth, transplant establishment, plant chemical composition, and water relations appears to be species and site specific.

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J. Roger Harris and Edward F. Gilman

Abbreviations: CER, carbon exchange rate; FC, fabric containers; FG, field grown; PC, plastic containers; Ψ leaf , leaf water potential. 1 Current address: Urban Horticulture Institute, 20 Plant Science Bldg., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853

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R.C. Beeson Jr.

Large (≈5 m high) Quercus virginiana Mill. (live oak) trees produced in 0.64-m-diameter in-ground fabric containers were root pruned or not root pruned inside containers before harvest. Harvested trees were grown in two sizes of polyethylene containers for 10 months, then transplanted into a landscape. Water potential (ψT) of small branches (<4 mm in diameter) was measured diurnally during containerization and for 1 year in the landscape. Root pruning had no influence on postharvest survival. Neither root pruning nor container size affected tree water status during containerization or in the landscape. All surviving trees recovered from transplant shock following harvest after 16 weeks in a container, independent of treatment. In the landscape, 35 weeks of daily irrigation were required before dusk ψT declined to within 0.1 MPa of predawn values, a result indicating alleviation of transplant shock. Trunk growth rate during containerization was highest in larger containers. However, in the landscape, root pruning and small containers were associated with higher trunk growth rate. Tree water status during containerization and in the landscape is discussed.

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Robin G. Brumfield, Alyssa J. DeVincentis, Xueni Wang, R. Thomas Fernandez, Susmitha Nambuthiri, Robert L. Geneve, Andrew K. Koeser, Guihong Bi, Tongyin Li, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Diana Cochran, Amy Fulcher, and J. Ryan Stewart

production (COP), cost per plant, cost per acre, and proportion of average COP for ‘Green Velvet’ boxwood grown in fabric container pots in: Michigan (MI), Kentucky (KY), Tennessee (TN), Mississippi (MS), and Texas (TX). Table 5. Input costs for total cost of

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Xueni Wang, R. Thomas Fernandez, Bert M. Cregg, Rafael Auras, Amy Fulcher, Diana R. Cochran, Genhua Niu, Youping Sun, Guihong Bi, Susmitha Nambuthiri, and Robert L. Geneve

Containers made from natural fiber and recycled plastic are marketed as sustainable substitutes for traditional plastic containers in the nursery industry. However, growers’ acceptance of alternative containers is limited by the lack of information on how alternative containers impact plant growth and water use (WU). We conducted experiments in Michigan, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Texas to test plant growth and WU in five different alternative containers under nursery condition. In 2011, ‘Roemertwo’ wintercreeper (Euonymus fortunei) were planted in three types of #1 (≈1 gal) containers 1) black plastic (plastic), 2) wood pulp (WP), and 3) recycled paper (KF). In 2012, ‘Green Velvet’ boxwood (Buxus sempervirens × B. microphylla siebold var. koreana) was evaluated in 1) plastic, 2) WP, 3) fabric (FB), and 4) keratin (KT). In 2013, ‘Dark Knight’ bluebeard (Caryopteris ×clandonensis) was evaluated in 1) plastic, 2) WP, and 3) coir fiber (Coir). Plants grown in alternative containers generally had similar plant growth as plastic containers. ‘Roemertwo’ wintercreeper had high mortality while overwintering in alternative containers with no irrigation. Results from different states generally show plants grown in fiber containers such as WP, FB, and Coir used more water than those in plastic containers. Water use efficiency of plants grown in alternative containers vs. plastic containers depended on plant variety, container type, and climate.

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Roberta J. Tolan and James E. Klett

Patmore green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica `Patmore'), Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra), were used to measure growth differences of trees produced using three different production methods: balled and burlapped, plastic container, and fabric container (grow bag). Two irrigation frequencies were also established. A pressure chamber was used to measure the xylem water potential and to determine tree water requirements and irrigation scheduling. The balled and burlapped trees showed the least new growth of the three production methods across all three tree types. The production method showing the most new growth varied by genera. Plastic container ash trees grew considerably more than the fabric container ash; fabric container oak grew significantly more than plastic container oak; and there was no measurable difference between the new growth of the plastic container and fabric container pines. The fabric container transplants required more frequent irrigation than did the balled and burlapped trees. Under high temperature and drought conditions, fabric container trees showed stress earlier than did the balled and burlapped or plastic container trees.

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Amy Jo Waldo and James E. Klett

Ninety trees are being used and have been in the field since 1994. The three species studied include: Fraxinus pennsylvanica Patmore (Green Ash), Quercus macrocarpa (Bur Oak), and Pinus nigra (Austrian Pine); 30 of each species. Each species has been harvested in three different nursery production methods including balled and burlapped, plastic container, and fabric container. During the 1996 growing season, the following data was recorded for each tree, growth increments, caliper size, and tree heights. For the two deciduous species, both dry weights and leaf area were recorded. Some sap flow measurements were taken using a non-intrusive stem heat balance method, on the same tree species with varying production methods. All three species showed the greatest growth increments and heights for those trees planted in fabric containers. In regards to trunk caliper size, Pinus nigra showed that the balled and burlapped, and fabric containers had larger calipers than those planted in plastic containers. Fabric container trees were larger in caliper than plastic container trees, which was larger than the balled and burlapped on Quercus macrocarpa. The plastic container and balled and burlapped resulted in greater calipers on Fraxinus pennsylvanica than the fabric containers. Quercus macrocarpa also showed that both leaf area and dry weight were greatest for trees planted in fabric containers, followed by the other production methods. Trees in plastic containers exhibited the greatest leaf area and dry weight for Fraxinus pennsylvanica. Overall, the fabric container trees in all three species illustrated the highest-quality trees, followed by those planted in plastic containers, and then balled and burlapped. Minimal data was recorded for transpiration rates in 1996 and will be further investigated in 1997.

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Driss Iraqi, Isabelle Duchesne, and Jacques-Andre Rioux

Root system growth in limited volume containers can have important consequences on stem growth and root morphology. The most widespread deformation observed is root circling. Consequently, root circling often reduces growth, root regeneration and tree anchorage at transplanting time. The objective of this study is to restrict root tips. Three tree species were used in the study; Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Acer saccharinum and Malus baccata. All species were grown in containers lined with one of six combinations of polymer (P) (0, 30 and 60 g/m2 and copper (Cu) (0, 0.4 and 0.8%) coated fabric. Two other treatments were included as controls: a plastic container and a fabric container. Treatments were randomized in complete blocks with six repetitions. Preliminary results of root circling length and dry weight indicate good restriction of root tips for two combinations (30 g of P/m2 - 0.8% Cu; 60 g of P/m2 - 0.8% Cu) for all species. However, treatments did not cause any reduction in stem height, trunk diameter or stem and root dry weight. Phytotoxic symptoms were not observed throughout the experiment.

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Driss Iraqi, Isabelle Duchesne, and Jacques-André Rioux

The most widespread deformation observed in container production is root circling. Consequently, root circling often reduces growth, root regeneration, and tree anchorage at transplanting time. The objectives of this study were to test the effectiveness of Cu(OH)2 lined containers on restriction of root tips, tree growth, and potential root regeneration (PRR). Two species were used in this study: Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Acer saccharinum. Species were grown for one season in containers lined with one of six combinations of polymer (P) (0, 30, and 60 g·m–2) and copper (Cu) (0%,0.4%, and 0.8%) -coated fabric. Two other treatments were included as controls: a plastic container and a fabric container. Seedlings of each species were harvest twice: at the first season and after being transplanted from 10- to 75-liter containers. Treatments were randomized in complete blocks with six repetitions. Results of root circling length and dry weight indicate good restriction of root tips for two combinations (30 g of P/m2–0.8% Cu; 60 g of P/m2–0.8% Cu) for all species. However, treatments did not cause any reduction in stem height, trunk diameter, or stem and root dry weight. At the end of the transplanting season, PRR was greater for two combinations (30 g of P/m2–0.8% Cu; 60 g of P/m2–0.8% Cu), especially for green ash. No significant differences were observed between a plastic fabric and the two treatments cited for the other growth parameters. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed throughout the experiment.