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Melanie Stock

younger than the average producer), 78% have Internet, and 40% rely on mobile-based Internet ( USDA-NASS, 2017 ). To meet the needs of this growing group of younger, less experienced, and technologically advanced farmers, extension programming requires

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Raymond A. Cloyd

The way extension specialists and educators conduct programs, such as workshops, and transfer information to their designated clientele, including homeowners, professionals, and specialty groups, has changed within the last decade due to merging departments, budget cuts, reduced operating funds, and lack of refilling vacant positions. These factors have resulted in a number of driving forces that influence the way extension specialists and educators perform their duties, such as accountability, regionalization of extension, impact of technology, and expanding expertise. To be accountable under today's standards, extension specialists and educators must document the impact, relevance, and effectiveness of their programs. Required documentation must include economic, environmental, and human development factors. The effect of downsizing in many states has led to regionalization, which involves sharing extension specialists and educators across state boundaries. Although there are concerns, such as funding issues and evaluation of extension specialists and educators among states, regionalization in general has resulted in collaborative efforts to organize workshops and produce regional publications that serve a wider clientele base. Extension specialists and educators need to use computer-based and electronic technology, such as teleconferencing and distance-education, to present effective programs and address a wider audience, which will reduce the amount of required travel time. Finally, extension specialists and educators need to keep abreast of issues, such as invasive species, and develop programs to increase awareness of the economic and ecological impacts of invasive species in order to effectively serve the clientele base. Extension specialists and educators will more effectively serve their clientele, justify the importance of extension programming, demonstrate extension as a valued resource to administrators, and deal with the challenges of financial constraint existing now and in the foreseeable future by documenting impact, using multi-state programming, adopting new technology, and keeping up with current issues.

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Mary Hockenberry Meyer and David Michener

objective of this investigation was to complete a qualitative and quantitative analysis of academic (credit) classes, internships, and Cooperative Extension programs at botanic gardens and arboreta in the United States. Specific goals were to define

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S. Christopher Marble, Amy Fulcher, and John Toman

travel budgets ( Wang, 2014 ). Budget cuts to extension programming reached perilous levels in many states from 2008 to 2011, during the “Great Recession” ( Floyd, 2014 ; Serenari et al., 2013 ; Warner et al., 2014 ). State Cooperative Extension Service

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Mike Murray

A 1995/96 sabbatical leave in Australia was conducted to elucidate trends in public extension programs related to technology transfer or information delivery. Interviews with imore than 500 extension providors and users in seven states or territories were conducted. Based on these discussions, 12 commonalities or recurring themes were identified. These were the delivery of public extension programs through State Departments of Agriculture that also have regulatory responsibilities; decreased public funding for extension programs; clear separations between applied research and extension functions; adoption of purchaser/provider funding models; poor communication or collaboration between extension and universities; an emphasis on group facilitation programming; difficulties related to extension staff recruitment or retention; diminished clientele support for public extension programs; an emphasis on the sociological aspects of agricultural enterprises; the development of audio-visual educational materials; a movement to assist inefficient producers exit agriculture and; trends toward the privatization of, or cost recovery for, public extension programs.

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George J. Hochmuth and Donald N. Maynard

Delivery of modern extension programs involves considerable expenses that are becoming scarce from traditional sources. Successful extension educational programs will need to find additional revenue sources to fund educational materials, speaker costs, conferences, and other needs. It is important to become as financially efficient as possible and sometimes this means consolidating some programs and eliminating others. Charging fees to attendees is one means of covering costs of delivering programs. The University of Florida is partnering with the agriculture industry and trade journal publishers to provide resources and publishing for educational programs and materials.

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William J. Lamont Jr., Michael D. Orzolek, E. Jay Holcomb, Robert M. Crassweller, Kathy Demchak, Eric Burkhart, Lisa White, and Bruce Dye

The Center for Plasticulture's High Tunnel Research and Education Facility was established at Pennsylvania State University in 1999. Since its inception, applied research has been conducted at this facility by a team of researchers and extension specialists on the development of a new high tunnel design. The development of crop production recommendations for vegetables, small fruits, tree fruits and cut flowers grown in high tunnels has been a priority. To complement the applied research program, an aggressive extension education program was developed to extend information on the technology of high tunnels to county extension personnel, growers, industry representatives, students, master gardeners and the general public. The extension programming effort consisting of demonstration high tunnels, field days, tours, in-service training, publications and presentations made at winter meetings will be discussed in the report below.

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J.J. Ferguson, C.L. Taylor, and G.D. Israel

Six comprehensive surveys of the Florida citrus industry (345,645 ha), published from 1989 to 1993 as extension bulletins, provide information essential for long-range research and extension program planning and evaluation. These surveys documented changes in production practices, regional priorities for extension programming, marketing trends, and grower ranking of information sources. While formal, comprehensive surveys may be a valuable tool in long-range extension programming for large horticultural industries, more rapid, creative survey methods and educational programs may be needed for more timely programs and for specialized industry groups.

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Wesley R. Autio, Kathleen M. Carroll, William M. Coli, Kathleen P. Leahy, and Daniel R. Cooley

Abstract

A microcomputer-based bulletin board using the FIDO software package was established at the Univ. of Massachusetts for the distribution of information in the cooperative extension programs of home horticulture, fruits, vegetables, cranberries, and integrated pest management. System establishment costs were under $3000, and costs for the first year were about $200 for the maintenance of a telephone line. The system logged 4595 calls from university personnel, county extension staff, state agencies, and farmers during the first year of operation (July 1986 to June 1987). A total of 307 individual information files were uploaded to the system by both university and county extension staff, while 387 downloads occurred from the system.

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Amy Fulcher, Dava Hayden, and Winston Dunwell

The objectives of Kentucky's Sustainable Nursery Production Practices Extension Program are for 1) the Kentucky nursery industry to continue sustained growth and 2) Kentucky growers to produce high quality plants, efficiently use pesticides, be stewards of their land and Kentucky's environment. Sustainable Nursery Program Components are 1) Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Nursery Scouting, Scout Training and Scouting Education for growers, Extension workers, and students; 2) Best Management Practice (BMP) Workshops: BMP VI: Disease Demolition Workshop; 3) Production Practice Demonstration: Pruning Training, Pesticide Handling, and Safety and Environmental Stewartship. 4.) Research: Pruning protocols; Media and media amendments; Precision Fertilization and Irrigation. The Kentucky Nursery Crops Scouting Program scouting guidelines were developed and contained: a weekly scouting/trapping guide; a listing of which pests to look for and on what host plants, and a detailed methodology of precisely how to look for the pest, its damage, and how to record this information such that comparisons could be made across nurseries and seasons.