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Heidi Hargarten, Sumyya Waliullah, Lee Kalcsits, and Loren A. Honaas

, and after storage ( Duan et al., 2017 ; Leisso et al., 2016 ; Nham et al., 2015 ). Global-scale gene expression analysis afforded by second-generation sequencing of mRNA allows the activity of all genes to be monitored simultaneously. This powerful

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Ying Jia, Dianren Xia, and E.S. Louzada

A cDNA coding for a putative terpene synthase (Grtps) was isolated from `Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) mature fruit by differential display RT-PCR and the corresponding full-length cDNA and genomic clone were subsequently obtained. The isolated cDNA clone was 1644 bp in length encoding a protein of 548 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 64 kDa and of pI 5.38. The genomic clone was 3203 bp in length with 6 introns and 7 exons. This Grtps appears to be a sesquiterpene synthase based on molecular weight, genomic organization, and similarity with the other terpene synthases. Both RT-PCR and Northern blot expression analysis indicated that Grtps is not expressed in immature fruits, roots, or leaves, but only in mature fruits. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA demonstrated that Grtps is one of the members in the family of terpene synthases.

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Adriana Robbins, Ying Jia, and Eliezer Louzada*

In Texas, the freezes of 1951 and 1962 together killed 125,000 acres of citrus trees and the freeze of 1983 killed 40,000 acres. The low temperature is one of the most important abiotic stresses to be understood and manipulated molecularly. Cold hardiness is found in the deciduous citrus relative, trifoliate orange, which can withstand temperatures as low as -26 °C when it is cold acclimated. Exposure of the cold hardy trifoliate orange plants to temperature from 28 °C to -5 °C enabled us to isolate and characterize one novel citrus low temperature gene (clt) with two transcripts, called clt-a and clt-b from leaves and twigs. Clt-a was produced when plants were subjected to low temperatures (starting at 10 °C), while cltb was constitutively expressed. Both clt-a and clt-b have the same open reading frame of 165 nucleotides and encodes a small protein of 54 amino acid. However, clt-a has an additional 98 bp nucleotides at the 3'-untranslated region (UTR), which is absent in clt-b. Expression analysis using relative quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that clt-a is expressed exclusively at low temperatures, while clt-b is expressed constitutively (expression verified from 2 °C to -5 °C). In the process of deacclimation from -1 °C to 28 °C, the clt-a transcript degraded dramatically after 2 °C and was completely absent at 28 °C, while the clt-b transcript remain stable. When the acclimated plant was taken from -1 °C to room temperature, the clt-a gene degraded within 2 hours. Moreover, when acclimated plant was continuously exposed at -1 °C for 20 days, both transcripts clt-a and clt-b remained stable. Involvement of alternative splicing in transcript stability will be discussed.

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Xin Hao, Yu Fu, Wei Zhao, Lifei Liu, Rengui Bade, Agula Hasi, and Jinfeng Hao

for predicting conserved sequences of genes, was used to analyze the conserved motifs of the melon MADS-box genes (maximum number of motifs: 10, motif width >6 and <200). Expression analysis with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and

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Li-Xiao Yao, Yong-Rui He, Hai-Fang Fan, Lan-Zhen Xu, Tian-Gang Lei, Xiu-Ping Zou, Ai-Hong Peng, Qiang Li, and Shan-Chun Chen

Arabidopsis ferric chelate reductase ( FRO ) gene family reveals differential regulation by iron and copper Planta 223 1178 1190 Orozco-Mosqueda, M.C. Santoyo, G. Farias-Rodriguez, R. Macas-Rodriguez, L. Valencia-Cantero, E. 2012 Identification and expression

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David Gopaulchan, Adrian M. Lennon, and Pathmanathan Umaharan

and shown to be a likely candidate for M through expression analysis ( Gopaulchan et al., 2014 ). Fig. 1. A simplified diagram of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Anthurium andraeanum ; chalcone synthase ( CHS ), chalcone isomerase ( CHI

Open access

Lili Dong, Tongrui Liu, Di Gao, Jing Li, and Jie Qian

-joining method. A ProParam online tool in ExPASy ( Gasteiger et al., 2005 ) was used to analyze the basic physical and chemical properties of the protein sequences. Expression analysis. For the tissue expression experiments, roots, stems, leaves, axil, and apex

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Lili Dong, Qi Wang, Feng Xiong, Na Liu, and ShuiMing Zhang

to changes in gene expression. Given this, we tested the expression of CmMAX1 during the vegetative growth stage. Expression analysis showed that CmMAX1 in detected tissues varied little. This result was different from the previous report in

Open access

Wanyu Xu, Chen Chen, Ningning Gou, Mengzhen Huang, Tana Wuyun, Gaopu Zhu, Han Zhao, Huimin Liu, and Lin Wang

to synonymous substitutions (Ka/Ks) value, where Ka/Ks <1 indicates a negative selection, Ka/Ks = 1 indicates a neutral selection, and Ka/Ks >1 indicates a positive selection ( Gong et al., 2019 ). Expression analysis using RNA-sequencing data

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Yiran Li, Akiha Abe, Takuichi Fuse, Tomonari Hirano, Yoichiro Hoshino, and Hisato Kunitake

detected in the control were excluded in both C- and SI-like treatments. Expression analysis of candidate genes related to SI-like response by SqRT-PCR and qRT-PCR. ‘Banpeiyu’ and ‘Hyuganatsu’ pollen grains were resuspended in the Citrus mature pollen