per unit of information ( Smith, 1938 ; Swallow and Wehner, 1986 ; Zuhlke and Gritton, 1969 ); 3) use geostatistics to account for spatial autocorrelation in experimental design ( Fagroud and Van Meirvenne, 2002 ); and 4) determine the plot size that
Susan C. Miyasaka, Charles E. McCulloch, Graham E. Fogg, and James R. Hollyer
W.R. Okie, W.R. Joyner, and T.G. Beckman
Large field plantings are often difficult to label and to plant randomly. A DOS computer program was developed in SAS and BASIC to randomize lists of experimental factors and print sorted paper labels to apply to trees or plants. Tagged trees can be resorted readily by block or row to speed planting. The computer lists are useful for plot verification and subsequent data collection, especially if data are collected and inputted directly to a computer. Copies of the programs are available from W.R. Joyner if a formatted diskette and self-addressed mailer are supplied.
Both growers and vegetable seed companies have had long-term historic relationships with public agriculture extension educators and faculty to conduct unbiased evaluation of vegetable varieties. Reductions in both the number of vegetable seed companies as well as university human resources has led to questions about the viability and appropriateness of publicly-funded variety evaluation programs. Field based extension educators and regional staff have taken more leadership to evaluate varieties, but this often results in fragmented or repetitive trials with limited long term integration of data. Statewide vegetable extension specialists must provide the leadership in coordinating these trials to enhance the rigor of data collection and analysis. Fundamental to enhancing rigor is improving regional coordination and collaboration. The calculation of stability estimates for new and older varieties is most efficiently and quickly achieved through regional collaborations. Initial efforts should improve uniformity of trials by creating common evaluation methods for yield and qualitative evaluations (e.g., color, appearance), including two standard varieties (one local and one regional, long-term standard), standardizing field establishment practices, and selecting experimental designs and plot sizes to improve labor efficiency. These regionally coordinated trials will improve the ability to publish this type of applied research and demonstrate new levels of efficiency for university administrations. In the long term, carefully designed comparisons of genotypic performance among different environments could suggest new directions for university breeding programs as well as cropping systems research.
Candice A. Shoemaker, Paula Diane Relf, and Virginia I. Lohr
Many of the research questions that have been posed regarding the effects of plants on people can only be answered using methodologies from the social sciences. Lack of familiarity with these methods and their underlying concepts has limited the role that horticulturists have taken in this research. Horticulturists, because of their particular sensitivity to the various aspects of plants and the nature of the ways that people interact with plants, must be involved in this type of research to generate the information that is needed by horticultural industries. This paper reviews many of the common methods that have been used in research on human issues in horticulture and presents examples of studies that have been conducted using these techniques. Quantitative and qualitative methods are discussed.
Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez, Aline Cordeiro Taveira, Sebastião Ferreira de Lima, Larissa Pereira Ribeiro Teodoro, Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Adriano dos Santos, Erina Vitório Rodrigues, Gessi Ceccon, and Paulo Eduardo Teodoro
as Clayey Hapludox, and the climate is Aw, according to the Koppen classification. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and 20 prostrate genotypes (G1 to G20) of the Embrapa Meio Norte Improvement Program. Each
Jesse Vorwald and James Nienhuis
.K.). Experimental design. The experimental design was a factorial with three levels of popping times (60, 90, and 120 s), five levels of chamber temperature (101, 146, 208, 244, and 268 °C), and eight levels of seed moisture content (2.5%, 3.2%, 5.2%, 6.6%, 8.3%, 12
Joshua H. Freeman, G.A. Miller, S.M. Olson, and W.M. Stall
, SC) in 2005 and three locations (Blackville, SC; Citra, FL; Quincy, FL) in 2006. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block with four replications. Experimental plots consisted of three raised bed rows that were spaced 8.0 ft center
J. Steven Brown, Raymond J. Schnell, Tomás Ayala-Silva, J. Michael Moore, Cecile L. Tondo, and Michael C. Winterstein
). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Each experimental plot consisted initially of 10 trees per plot; however, plots were thinned as the trees grew to avoid overcrowding. Additionally, ≈10% of the
Sin-Ae Park, Chorong Song, Ji-Young Choi, Ki-Cheol Son, and Yoshifumi Miyazaki
humidity, and 1645 ± 189 lx illumination. The experimental procedures are presented in Fig. 1 . This study was of a crossover experimental design, which is a repeated measures design. In a crossover design, each experimental group crosses over from one
Laura E. Crawford and Martin M. Williams II
surface. Planting was done with a four-row cone planter with a 76-cm row spacing (ALMACO, Nevada, IA). Experimental design. The experimental design was a split-plot randomized complete block with four replications. To capture a range of environmental