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Kourosh Vahdati, Zeinab Maleki Asayesh, Sasan Aliniaeifard, and Charles Leslie

plants can be high mortality of plantlets after transferring to ex vitro conditions ( Crane and Hughes, 1990 ; Shim et al., 2003 ). Various methods such as ventilation ( Cui et al., 2000 ; Shim et al., 2003 ), lids permeable to water vapor ( Ghashghaie

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Cristian Silvestri, Gianmarco Sabbatini, Federico Marangelli, Eddo Rugini, and Valerio Cristofori

not easy to root and acclimatize, the rooting phase has been successfully performed ex vitro and the plants then survived when planted in the field ( Benmahioul et al., 2012 ; Saiju, 2005 ). The present work has been conducted to develop an efficient

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Jessica D. Lubell-Brand, Lauren E. Kurtz, and Mark H. Brand

performance through adjustment of the media nutrient content, and developing a method of ex vitro rooting. An additional objective was to evaluate retipping of recently micropropagated plants as a method of obtaining large quantities of clones for commercial

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Doina Clapa, Alexandru Fira, and Nirmal Joshee

Ex vitro acclimatization is an important stage during in vitro plant propagation, because it deals with gradual transition from the artificial culture conditions to the natural living environment. In the acclimatization stage it is necessary to

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W.L. Chen and D.M. Yeh

the shoot multiplication, and to evaluate the effects of auxins on ex vitro rooting of microcuttings in Aglaonema . Materials and Methods Plant material and culture conditions. Stock plants of Aglaonema ‘White Tip’ were grown in a 70

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Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira, Wagner A. Vendrame, and Luciana Cardoso Nogueira Londe

combinations could improve the efficiency of this technique. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of different cryoprotectants on germination and seedling development of J. curcas in vitro and ex vitro. Material and Methods Location

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J. Kevin Parris, Darren H. Touchell, Thomas G. Ranney, and Jeffrey Adelberg

manipulation. Ex vitro establishment protocols were also examined to ensure viable protocols exist to propagate plants or for commercial production. Material and Methods Plant material and culture conditions. Apical and axillary bud explants were used to

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Carmen Valero Aracama, Michael E. Kane, Sandra B. Wilson, and Nancy L. Philman

acclimatization capacity were observed among genotypes when plants were transferred to ex vitro conditions. Similarly, many other horticultural plants species are readily micropropagated in vitro but exhibit poor acclimatization and subsequent survival ex vitro

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S.A. Merkle and B.A. Watson-Pauley

Low conversion rates of somatic embryos and poor early growth of somatic embryo-derived plantlets of some forest trees may be related as much to prolonged maintenance in vitro as to basic developmental problems with the embryos. We tested ex vitro conversion as an alternative method for producing the rare North American pyramid magnolia (Magnolia pyramidata Bartram) plantlets from somatic embryos. Tissue cultures were initiated from immature seed explants of pyramid magnolia. Immature seeds collected from each of three trees formed proembryogenic masses (PEMs) following 7 to 10 weeks of continuous culture on semisolid medium containing 9.0 μm 2,4-D, 1.1 μm BA, and 1 g casein hydrolysate/liter. PEMs transferred to semisolid medium without plant growth regulators produced somatic embryos that germinated following transfer to the same medium without casein hydrolysate. Conversion frequency to plantlets was higher and plantlets were more vigorous when germinants were transferred directly to potting mix and grown in a humidifying chamber instead of being maintained in plantlet development medium in test tubes. Chemical names used: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (BA).

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Wilfredo Colón-Guasp, Terril A. Nell, Michael E. Kane, and James E. Barrett

The use of abscisic acid (ABA) as an in vitro prehardening treatment to enhance ex vitro acclimatization of Stage III Aronia arbutifolia plantlets was explored. Effects of ABA (0-4 mg·liter-1) pretreatment on ex vitro shoot growth, leaf carbon assimilation (LCA) and nonstructural carbohydrate content were evaluated during plantlet acclimatization under two photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) levels (450 and 650 μmol·m-2·s-1). Stage III plantlets rooted in the presence of ABA exhibited both shoot growth inhibition and transient negative LCA rates at time of transfer ex vitro. Regardless of treatment, maximum LCA rates were achieved by day 20 post-transplant. Pretreatment with ABA had no effect on stem or leaf starch content at time of transplant, however, leaf and stem soluble sugar content was higher in ABA treated plantlets than controls. Further suppression of shoot growth and alteration in the pattern of stem starch utilization occurred at the higher irradiance level. These results indicate that ABA pretreatments provide no physiological advantage that would facilitate ex vitro acclimatization of Aronia plantlets.