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William R. Argo and John A. Biernbaum

Subirrigated Easter lilies were grown in five commercially formulated root media using one water-soluble fertilizer applied independently to each medium based on water-holding capacity and water loss. The number of irrigations ranged from 12 to 20 and the amount of applied water ranged from 5.3 to 6.8 liters for the uncovered media treatments. When the root-medium surface was covered with an evaporation barrier, the average amount of applied water was reduced by 35% compared to the uncovered media. The largest effect on root media pH was between uncovered and covered media due to the reduced amount of water applied. Similar macronutrient concentrations were measured in the five media during the experiment with few exceptions. The greatest differences in nutrient concentrations were found within the pots. The top 2.5 cm (top layer) contained nutrient concentrations up to 10 times higher than those measured in the remaining root medium (root zone) of the same pot. Covering the root-medium surface with an evaporation barrier reduced the stratification of fertilizer salts. Root-zone soluble salt concentrations of plants in the covered pots were similar to those of uncovered plants even though 36% less fertilizer was applied to the covered plants.

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William R. Argo and John A. Biernbaum

Using incubation and container culture with subirrigation for up to 28 days, three experiments were conducted with six liming materials of different particle sizes and six blended preplant nutrient charge (PNC) fertilizers. Liming material, particle size, and incorporation rate had an effect on the initial pH (3.5 to 6.1) and the final stable pH (4.8 to 7.8) with one type of Canadian sphagnum peat that did not contain an incorporated PNC. Saturated media extract (SME) Ca and Mg concentrations were <25 and 15 mg·liter-1, respectively, for both pulverized and superfine dolomitic lime at incorporation rates up to 7.2 kg·m-3. For the blended PNC fertilizers in media containing lime, initial electrical conductivity (EC) and SME nutrient concentrations ranged from (EC) 1.0 to 2.9 dS·m-1, (mg·liter-1) 60 to 300 N, 4 to 105 PO4-P, 85 to 250 K, 120 to 400 Ca, and 60 to 220 Mg. However, within two days, the rapid stratification of fertilizer salts within the pot caused macronutrient concentrations to increase in the top 3 cm of root medium (top layer) by an average of 180% and decrease in the remaining root medium in the pot (root zone) by an average of 57% compared to that measured in the medium at planting. Nutrient concentrations in the top layer continued to increase even when those in the root zone fell below acceptable levels recommended for an SME. The importance of fertilizer salt stratification within a pot lies in the reduced availability of nutrients to the plant and illustrates the limited persistence of the PNC fertilizers. Testing nutrients in container media several days after planting rather than in freshly mixed media may be more representative of the starting point for a nutritional management program.

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William R. Argo and John A. Biernbaum

Rooted cuttings of `Gutbier V-l 4 Glory poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) were grown in 15-cm pots using two irrigation methods, two water-soluble fertilization schedules, and two preplant root-media fertilization rates. No difference in shoot growth occurred with either top watering with 33% leaching or subirrigation. The top 2.5 cm (top layer) contained nutrient concentrations up to 10 times higher than those measured in the remaining root medium (root zone) of the same pot with both irrigation methods. Constant applications of28 mol N/m3 water-soluble fertilizer (WSF) limited shoot and root growth as measured at 3 and 8 weeks compared to a weekly increase in the concentration of WSF from 0 to 28 mol N/m3 in 7 mol N/m3 increments over a S-week period. The additional incorporation of 0.27 kg·m-3 mineral N to Metro Mix 510 before planting had no effect on fresh- or dry-weight accumulation. When the root-medium surface was covered by an evaporation barrier, 46% less water and 41% less N fertilizer were applied to plants of similar size, and higher root-zone nutrient levels were maintained over the 8 weeks of the experiment. The evaporation barrier had the greatest effect on increasing root-zone nutrient concentrations and reducing the growth of subirrigated plants.

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Shawn T. Steed, Allison Bechtloff, Andrew Koeser, and Tom Yeager

, covering the surface with a plastic evaporation barrier resulted in 35% fewer irrigation events and 22% to 50% reduction in the amount of water applied compared with nonmulched control plants. Lohr and Pearson-Mims (2001) reported a reduction in frequency

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Caitlin E. Splawski, Emilie E. Regnier, S. Kent Harrison, Mark A. Bennett, and James D. Metzger

result in two to four times more water runoff compared with bare soil ( Rice et al., 2001 ). Particulate organic mulches allow water infiltration while providing an evaporation barrier to reduce moisture loss ( Teasdale and Mohler, 2000 ), and addition of

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Robert H. Stamps and Heidi M. Savage

decrease in transpiration and was due to the additional water supplied by the CW. Inclusion of an evaporation barrier over the CW, as well as the hydrated PAM, might increase their efficacy slightly. Under the conditions of Expt. 3, top-dressed hydrated PAM

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Gabriele Amoroso, Piero Frangi, Riccardo Piatti, Alessio Fini, and Francesco Ferrini

containers Nursery Mgt. Production 17 10 71 76 Argo, W.R. Biernbaum, J.A. 1994 Irrigation requirements, root medium pH, and nutrient concentration of easter lilies grown in five peat-based media with and without and evaporation barrier J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci

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Enoc Barrera-Aguilar, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Ana M. Castillo-González, Andrew D. Cartmill, Donita L. Cartmill, Edilberto Avitia-García, and Luis Ibarra-Jímenez

-medium pH, and nutrient concentrations of easter lilies grown in five peat-based media with and without an evaporation barrier J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119 1151 1156 Armengaud, P. Sulpice, R. Miller, A.J. Stitt, M. Amtmann, A. Gibon, Y. 2009 Multilevel

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Julián Miralles-Crespo, María J. Sánchez-Blanco, Alejandra Navarro G., Juan J. Martínez-Sánchez, Jose A. Franco L., and Sebastián Bañón A.

, root-medium pH, and nutrient concentrations of Easter lilies grown in five peat-based media with and without an evaporation barrier J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119 1151 1156 Bañón, S. Ochoa, J. Franco, J.A. Sánchez-Blanco, M.J. Alarcón, J.J. 2003 Influence

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Raquel Valdés, Julián Miralles, Jesús Ochoa, Sebastián Bañón, and María Jesús Sánchez-Blanco

Irrigation requirements, root-medium pH, and nutrient concentrations of easter lilies grown in five peat-based media with and without an evaporation barrier J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119 1151 1156 Argo, W.R. Biernbaum, J.A. 1995 The effect of irrigation method