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M.S. Tian, Talebul Islam, D.G. Stevenson, and D.E. Irving

Color, ethylene production and respiration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) dipped in hot water (45 °C, 10 minutes; 47 °C, 7.5 minutes; and 20 °C, 10 minutes as control) were measured. Hot-water treatment (HWT) delayed yellowing. Compared to the control, ethylene production and respiration in broccoli dipped at 45 °C decreased but recovered, and rates of both were enhanced after 24 and 48 hours, respectively, at 20 °C in darkness. There was no recovery of ethylene production or respiration in broccoli dipped at 47 °C. Following HWT of 47 °C for 7.5 minutes, respiration, starch, sucrose, and soluble protein content of florets and stems decreased dramatically during the first 10 to 24 hours after harvest. At the same time, fructose contents in florets and stems increased. Glucose increased in the florets but decreased within 24 hours in stems. Thereafter, glucose and fructose in florets and stems decreased. Sucrose content in florets and stems increased dramatically within a short period of treatment (<10 hours) and then declined. Protein in HWT florets and stems decreased during the first 24 hours and then increased until 72 hours. Ammonia content was lower in HWT broccoli during the first 24 hours and then increased above the level in the controls.

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Bin Li, Ting Sang, Lizhong He, Jin Sun, Juan Li, and Shirong Guo

least until the stress is removed and the ethylene level is lowered ( Gamalero and Glick, 2012 ). Various biotic and abiotic stresses can cause an imbalance in ethylene production, and increased ethylene levels can cause leaf senescence and inhibit root

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Warley M. Nascimento, Jairo V. Vieira, Giovani O. Silva, Kathleen R. Reitsma, and Daniel J. Cantliffe

genotypes and screen germplasm to identify lines with greater tolerance to germinate at high temperatures and then to determine if there is a possible correlation between ethylene production and seed germination at high temperatures. Materials and

Open access

Lan-Yen Chang and Jeffrey K. Brecht

reactions change in the damaged tissues and trigger ethylene production, resulting in major postharvest losses, decay, and accelerated senescence, thus affecting strawberry quality and shelf life ( Ferreira et al., 2009 ; Wills and Kim, 1995 ). The severity

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Dan D. MacLean and D. Scott NeSmith

reduction in the rate of ethylene production. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no published reports on the use of 1-MCP for maintaining blueberry fruit firmness. However, it was demonstrated that a moderate treatment rate of 1-MCP did not

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Iwanka Kozarewa, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Russell T. Nagata, and Peter J. Stoffella

the ethylene production and perception measurements.

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Xia Ye, Xianbo Zheng, Dehua Zhai, Wen Song, Bin Tan, Jidong Li, and Jiancan Feng

ethylene in rachis development or senescence before and after harvest. Increased understanding of the synthesis and regulation of ethylene production during development and senescence of grape rachis and berry would lay a foundation for prolonging shelf and

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Norman K. Lownds and Tracy M. Sterling

Broom snakeweed [Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby] is a suffrutescent shrub that is a problem in rangeland production areas because it interferes with forage growth and is potentially dangerous to livestock. Picloram, an auxin-like herbicide, is used for broom snakeweed control. Picloram-induced ethylene production may be important to its efficacy, therefore, studies were conducted to characterize ethylene production and phytotoxicity. Picloram, applied as individual drops, induced a linear increase in ethylene production (r= 0.738***) between 0 and 72 hr after treatment. When plants were sprayed with 0.125, 0.25 and 0.50 lb ae/A, ethylene production increased linearly through 120 hr then leveled off and began to decrease for all three concentrations. The highest rate of ethylene production was induced by 0.25 lb ae/A followed by 0.50 and 0.125, respectively. Epinasty was evident 24 hr after treatment and chlorosis 3 to 4 days after treatment. Both were more severe with increasing picloram concentration. It appears that picloram-induced ethylene production is an important component in picloram activity.

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Elizabeth A. Baldwin and Russell Pressey

Exopolygalacturonase (exo-PG) (EC 3.2.1.67) was investigated for ability to induce ethylene production in green cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The fruit were vacuum-infiltrated with various levels of exo-PG from green tomato fruit, squash flower, or oak pollen and compared to boiled enzyme or salt controls for ethylene production. In all cases, fruit treated with active enzymes produced significantly higher levels of ethylene than did control fruit. The ethylene response was evident 2 hours after treatment and was transient in nature, returning to basal levels by 22 hours. The amount of ethylene produced did not appear to be influenced by the source of exo-PG.

Open access

N. K. Lownds and M. J. Bukovac

Abstract

Ethylene evolution induced by nonionic (Triton X-100, Triton X-405, Tween 20, Ortho X-77 and Regulaid), anionic (Aerosol OT and Dupanol ME), and cationic (Arquad C-50 and Arquad 2C-75) surfactants was characterized using cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. supsb. unguiculata ‘Dixielee’] seedlings. Representative surfactants of each ionogenic class induced ethylene evolution. Time course studies revealed an increased rate of ethylene evolution during the first 6 to 12 hr after treatment, followed by a slow decrease for the next 12 to 36 hr, and a return to control levels within 48 hr. Ethylene production induced by Triton X-100 increased with increasing concentration, while Tween 20 did not induce ethylene at concentrations up to 1.0%. Surfactants that promoted ethylene evolution also generally induced visible phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity symptoms increased with increasing time after treatment. Surfactant-induced ethylene production and phytotoxicity were observed with corn (Zea mays L. ‘B73 × MO17’), wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Hillsdale’), soybean (Glycine max Merr. ‘McCall’), apple (Malus domestica Borkh. ‘Golden Delicious’), and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. ‘Montmorency’). Tween 20, nonactive on cowpea, induced ethylene and phytotoxicity when applied to the abaxial surface of sour cherry leaves. Chemical names used: octyl-phenoxypoly(ethoxy)ethanol (Triton X-100 and X-405), polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20), alkylaryl polyoxyethylene glycols/free fatty acids/isopropanol (Ortho X-77), polyoxyethylenepolypropoxypropanol alkyl 2-ethoxyethanol/dihydroxy-propane (Regulaid), diocytl sodium sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT), sodium lauryl sulfate (Dupanol ME), monococo trimethyl ammonium chloride (Arquad C-50), dicoco dimethyl ammonium chloride (Arquad 2C-75).