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M.S. Tian, Talebul Islam, D.G. Stevenson, and D.E. Irving

Color, ethylene production and respiration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) dipped in hot water (45 °C, 10 minutes; 47 °C, 7.5 minutes; and 20 °C, 10 minutes as control) were measured. Hot-water treatment (HWT) delayed yellowing. Compared to the control, ethylene production and respiration in broccoli dipped at 45 °C decreased but recovered, and rates of both were enhanced after 24 and 48 hours, respectively, at 20 °C in darkness. There was no recovery of ethylene production or respiration in broccoli dipped at 47 °C. Following HWT of 47 °C for 7.5 minutes, respiration, starch, sucrose, and soluble protein content of florets and stems decreased dramatically during the first 10 to 24 hours after harvest. At the same time, fructose contents in florets and stems increased. Glucose increased in the florets but decreased within 24 hours in stems. Thereafter, glucose and fructose in florets and stems decreased. Sucrose content in florets and stems increased dramatically within a short period of treatment (<10 hours) and then declined. Protein in HWT florets and stems decreased during the first 24 hours and then increased until 72 hours. Ammonia content was lower in HWT broccoli during the first 24 hours and then increased above the level in the controls.

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Bin Li, Ting Sang, Lizhong He, Jin Sun, Juan Li, and Shirong Guo

least until the stress is removed and the ethylene level is lowered ( Gamalero and Glick, 2012 ). Various biotic and abiotic stresses can cause an imbalance in ethylene production, and increased ethylene levels can cause leaf senescence and inhibit root

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Warley M. Nascimento, Jairo V. Vieira, Giovani O. Silva, Kathleen R. Reitsma, and Daniel J. Cantliffe

genotypes and screen germplasm to identify lines with greater tolerance to germinate at high temperatures and then to determine if there is a possible correlation between ethylene production and seed germination at high temperatures. Materials and

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Lan-Yen Chang and Jeffrey K. Brecht

reactions change in the damaged tissues and trigger ethylene production, resulting in major postharvest losses, decay, and accelerated senescence, thus affecting strawberry quality and shelf life ( Ferreira et al., 2009 ; Wills and Kim, 1995 ). The severity

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Dan D. MacLean and D. Scott NeSmith

reduction in the rate of ethylene production. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no published reports on the use of 1-MCP for maintaining blueberry fruit firmness. However, it was demonstrated that a moderate treatment rate of 1-MCP did not

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Iwanka Kozarewa, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Russell T. Nagata, and Peter J. Stoffella

the ethylene production and perception measurements.

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Xia Ye, Xianbo Zheng, Dehua Zhai, Wen Song, Bin Tan, Jidong Li, and Jiancan Feng

ethylene in rachis development or senescence before and after harvest. Increased understanding of the synthesis and regulation of ethylene production during development and senescence of grape rachis and berry would lay a foundation for prolonging shelf and

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Norman K. Lownds and Tracy M. Sterling

Broom snakeweed [Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby] is a suffrutescent shrub that is a problem in rangeland production areas because it interferes with forage growth and is potentially dangerous to livestock. Picloram, an auxin-like herbicide, is used for broom snakeweed control. Picloram-induced ethylene production may be important to its efficacy, therefore, studies were conducted to characterize ethylene production and phytotoxicity. Picloram, applied as individual drops, induced a linear increase in ethylene production (r= 0.738***) between 0 and 72 hr after treatment. When plants were sprayed with 0.125, 0.25 and 0.50 lb ae/A, ethylene production increased linearly through 120 hr then leveled off and began to decrease for all three concentrations. The highest rate of ethylene production was induced by 0.25 lb ae/A followed by 0.50 and 0.125, respectively. Epinasty was evident 24 hr after treatment and chlorosis 3 to 4 days after treatment. Both were more severe with increasing picloram concentration. It appears that picloram-induced ethylene production is an important component in picloram activity.

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Elizabeth A. Baldwin and Russell Pressey

Exopolygalacturonase (exo-PG) (EC was investigated for ability to induce ethylene production in green cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The fruit were vacuum-infiltrated with various levels of exo-PG from green tomato fruit, squash flower, or oak pollen and compared to boiled enzyme or salt controls for ethylene production. In all cases, fruit treated with active enzymes produced significantly higher levels of ethylene than did control fruit. The ethylene response was evident 2 hours after treatment and was transient in nature, returning to basal levels by 22 hours. The amount of ethylene produced did not appear to be influenced by the source of exo-PG.

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Jenny Jobling, David Dilley, and Barry McGlasson

The onset of the respiratory and ethylene climacterics in Granny Smith apples is usually protracted when the fruit are held continuously at 20°C. We have found that a period of at least 4 days at 0°C stimulates ethylene production when the fruit are returned to 20°C. Once initiated ethylene production proceeds at a high rate. Data will be presented showing the pattern of ethylene production following chilling by Granny Smith apples from two commercial districts in Australia. Our data suggests that a period of chilling stimulates ACC Synthase as in Winter Pears.