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Jianzhi Jenny Zhang and Christopher B. Watkins

The effects of postharvest treatments of air and 20 kPa CO2 (in air) at 2 or 20 °C on color, firmness, accumulations of acetaldehyde, ethanol, and ethyl acetate, activities of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, and expression of an ADH gene were studied in strawberry fruit (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. cv. Jewel). CO2 treatment enhanced strawberry fruit firmness at 2 °C but not 20 °C, while the rate of color changes was affected by CO2 treatment at 20 °C but not at 2 °C. Temperature also affected the accumulation of acetaldehyde, ethanol and ethyl acetate in CO2-treated fruit. All three compounds accumulated in fruits at 2 °C. At 20 °C, ethanol accumulated slightly by day 6, although ethyl acetate accumulated in fruit from both atmospheres. PDC enzyme activity was higher in CO2-treated fruit than their air-treated control at 2 °C but not at 20 °C. ADH activity and ADH mRNA accumulation of the CO2-treated berries were higher than in air at 20 °C but not 2 °C. The results, overall, indicate that patterns of change among gene expression, enzyme activities, and fermentation product accumulation were not consistent.

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Charles F. Forney, Michael A. Jordan, Kumudini U.K.G. Nicholas, and Jennifer R. DeEll

Use of volatile emissions and chlorophyll fluorescence as indicators of freezing injury were investigated for apple fruit (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). `Northern Spy' and `Delicious' apples were kept at -8.5 °C for 0, 6, or 24 h, and then at 20 °C. After 1, 2, 5, and 7 d at 20 °C, fruit were analyzed for firmness, skin and flesh browning, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethylene, respiration rate, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Freezing caused skin and flesh browning and a loss of fruit firmness, which was greater in `Northern Spy' than in `Delicious'. In `Northern Spy' fruit subjected to the freezing treatments, ethanol and ethyl acetate concentrations were as much as 37- and 300-fold greater, respectively, than in control fruit. `Delicious' fruit showed similar patterns of ethanol and ethyl acetate increase, but of lower magnitude, as a result of freezing. Higher fruit respiratory quotients were associated with increased ethanol and ethyl acetate concentrations. Ethylene production and chlorophyll fluorescence of fruit were reduced by freezing.

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Jun Song, Lihua Fan, Charles F. Forney, and Michael A. Jordan

Volatile emissions and chlorophyll fluorescence were investigated as potential signals of heat injury for apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit. `McIntosh', `Cortland', `Jonagold', and `Northern Spy' apples were exposed to 46 °C for 0, 4, 8, or 12 hours (heat treatments). Following treatments, fruit were kept at 20 °C and evaluated after 1, 2, 4, or 7 days. Heat treatments induced volatile production including ethanol and ethyl acetate. The 8 and 12 hours heat treatments increased ethanol and ethyl acetate production in all four cultivars by as much as 170- and 11-fold, respectively, 1 day after treatments. Heat treatments also reduced ethylene production and chlorophyll fluorescence. Heat for 12 hours caused serious flesh browning. Among the cultivars investigated, `Northern Spy' and `McIntosh' were most susceptible to heat stress based on the degree of flesh browning. Correlation coefficients of heat stress induced ethanol emission and chlorophyll fluorescence with flesh browning were 0.82 and -0.66, respectively. The nondestructive measurements of ethanol emission and chlorophyll fluorescence have potential to identify stressed fruit with reduced quality or compromised storage life.

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Richard K. Volz, William V. Biasi, and Elizabeth J. Mitcham

Apple (Malux ×domestica Borkh., cv. Fuji) fruit were harvested from two California orchards 190 and 210 days after full bloom and from an additional three orchards at 190 days after full bloom. Fruit were immediately exposed to 20 or 50 kPa CO2 in air at 20 °C. Area of flesh browning and tissue ethanol, acetaldehyde, and ethyl acetate concentrations for individual fruit were determined immediately before exposure and after 3 and 7 days (20 kPa) or 1 and 3 days (50 kPa) exposure to CO2. Area of flesh browning and concentrations of all compounds increased with increasing duration of exposure to high CO2, were greater in response to 50 kPa than to 20 kPa CO2, and were greater for fruit harvested later in the season. For individual orchards and for individual fruit within most orchards, greater flesh browning was associated with higher acetaldehyde concentrations after 7 days exposure to 20 kPa CO2 or 3 days exposure to 50 kPa CO2. Similarly, flesh browning was positively correlated with ethanol concentrations after 7 days at 20 kPa CO2, but was not related to tissue ethyl acetate concentrations at either CO2 partial pressure. However, higher production of ethanol, acetaldehyde, or ethyl acetate relative to flesh browning occurred during exposure to 50 kPa than to 20 kPa CO2. This suggests that the relationship between accumulation of these compounds and CO2-induced flesh browning in `Fuji' is not simply causal.

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Jennifer R. DeEll and Peter M.A. Toivonen

The objective of this study was to determine if chlorophyll fluorescence could be used as an indicator of anaerobic respiration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) during modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP). Two types of packages were used, PD-941 bags, which provided optimum MAP conditions for broccoli (≈3 kPa O2 plus 5 kPa CO2), and PD-961EZ bags, which allowed the CO2 to accumulate (≈11 kPa CO2). After 28 days in MAP at 1 °C, the broccoli from both types of bag had similar appearances and weight losses. However, broccoli held in the PD-961EZ bags had developed slight to moderate alcoholic off-odors and had higher ethanol, acetaldehyde, and ethyl acetate content, as compared with broccoli in PD-941 bags. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, T1/2, Fmd, and ΦPSII) were lower for broccoli held in the PD-961EZ bags than in PD-941 bags, and these differences increased with storage duration. These results indicate that chlorophyll fluorescence is a reliable, rapid, nondestructive indicator of broccoli quality during MAP, and that it could be used to determine if broccoli has developed off-odors without opening the bag and disrupting the package atmosphere.

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Natta Laohakunjit, Orapin Kerdchoechuen, Frank B. Matta, Juan L. Silva, and William E. Holmes

characterized. Ethyl acetate (29.30%), acetaldehyde (21.62%), benzyl alcohol (11.93%), and 2-butenyl benzene (7.37%) were the major compounds in fresh samples and acetaldehyde (49.22%) and acetaldehyde (33.31%) were the main compounds in heated fresh sapodilla

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Elizabeth Baldwin, Jinhe Bai, Anne Plotto, John Manthey, Smita Raithore, Sophie Deterre, Wei Zhao, Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Philip A. Stansly, and James A. Tansey

propanol and unlike in 2013, there were differences for octanal. In addition to octanal, there were also differences for hexanal, methanol, ethanol, hexanol, cis -3-hexanol, α -pinene, limonene, γ-terpinene, valencene, ethyl acetate, methyl butanoate, and

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Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth Baldwin, Jack Hearn, Randy Driggers, and Ed Stover

esters giving the fruity top notes in orange juice include ethyl acetate, methyl butanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate ( Perez-Cacho and Rouseff, 2008 ; Plotto et al., 2008 ; Shaw, 1991 ). Ethyl acetate and

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Basavaraj Girennavar, Bhimanagouda Patil, and Guddadarangavvanahally Jayaprakasha

Antioxidant activity is widely used as a parameter to characterize different plant materials for potential health benefits. This activity is related with compounds capable of protecting a biological system against the harmful effect of reactions that can cause excessive oxidation, involving reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). There has been growing interest in the beneficial health effects of consuming fruits and vegetables. Mainly, the presence of lycopene, ascorbic acid, and phenolic antioxidants is believed to have the protective mechanism. The free radical-scavenging activities of grapefruit extract of `Rio Red', `Marsh White', and commercial juice were extracted with different solvents, such as hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform. The dried extracts were screened for their radical scavenging activity using the α,α -diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The ethyl acetate extracts of commercial juice and `Marsh White' were found to possess more radical scavenging activity compared with the other two extracts. However, chloroform extracts of `Rio Red' grapefruit were the most active, which may be ascribed to the presence of more lycopene. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of `Rio Red' and `Marsh White' extracts was assayed through the phosphomolybdenum method and expressed as equivalent to ascorbic acid (μmol·g-1 of the extract). The order of antioxidant capacity for `Rio Red' extracts was found to be hexane > chloroform > ethyl acetate, while the order for `Marsh White' was chloroform > hexane > ethyl acetate. The results indicate that the extent of antioxidant activity of the extract is in accordance with the amount of lycopene/phenolics present in that extract; commercial juice and `Rio Red' may provide a good source of antioxidants.

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Basavaraj Girennavar, Sara Simpkins, G.K. Jayaprakasha, and Bhimanagouda Patil

Food and drug interaction has been under discussionm and specifically grapefruit and drug interaction has been under investigation, in recent years. Irradiation of food has multiple benefits in food preservation through several processes, such as sprout inhibition, disinfection, decontamination, delayed maturation, and sterilization. When ionizing radiation is passed through food, it may affect the functional components, including organoleptic characteristics. In addition to naringin, dihydroxybergamottin, paradisin A, and bergamottin, as well as their isomers, are considered putative bioactive furocoumarins present in the grapefruit juice, which interfere with the first pass metabolism of the drugs. These compounds inhibit the activity of CYP P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein, which, in turn, will increase bioavailability of certain medications. In order to investigate the effect of pre-and postharvest practices on furocoumarins, `Rio Red' and `Marsh White' grapefruits were irradiated with 1, 5, and 10 kGys of e-beam. The irradiated fruit juice was analyzed for qualitative and quantitative changes in furocoumarins. Fifty milliliters of grapefruit juice was extracted with ethyl acetate three times and ethyl acetate extract was dried under vacuum and analyzed by HPLC. Irradiation at 1 kGys showed a decrease in the total content of dihydroxybergamottin, paradisin A, and bergamottin compared to 5 kGys, 10 kGys, and control. This project is based upon work supported by the USDA-CSREES under Agreement USDA IFAFS # 2001 52102 02294 and USDA # 2005-34402-14401 “Designing Foods for Health” through the Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center.