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M. Haque, M. Baker, C. Roper, C. Carver Wallace, M. Whitmire, S. Zabel, J. Arnold, L. Petty, A. Dabbs, B. Jordan, R. Keydoszius, and L. Wagner

The term Ethnobotany describes the study of people's relationships to plants as foods, fibers, medicines, dyes, and tools throughout the ages. Using the student active technique of experiential learning, undergraduate students enrolled in landscape design and implementation classes at Clemson University planned and installed an Ethnobotany garden in partnership with the South Carolina Botanical Garden (SCBG) staff, volunteers, and Sprouting Wings children. Sprouting Wings is an after-school gardening and nature exploration program for under-served elementary school students. College students and faculty working on this service-learning project contributed over 1,000 hours to their community while learning more about both the art and the science of landscape design and implementation. Students enrolled in the landscape Implementation class were surveyed to evaluate their perceptions on a variety of possible learning outcomes for this class. Students indicated that their service learning experience with the Ethnobotany project allowed them to acquire and practice new skills, broadened their understanding of the surrounding community, increased their ability to work in real world situations, introduced new career possibilities, gave students a better understanding of their course work, increased their ability to work on a team, increased their knowledge of environmental sustainability, and allowed them to discover or develop leadership capabilities. In a survey question regarding preference for service learning rather than traditional classes, the majority of students prefer the service learning pedagogy. In addition, most students reported a high degree of initiative for this project in their reflections.

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Mary Hockenberry Meyer and Anna F.G. Barker

A bibliography of references on Native American agricultural traditions is proposed to integrate horticulture into classroom teaching with a multidisciplinary approach. Five teaching themes are given as examples of using the references to incorporate horticultural activities across diverse disciplines such as mathematics, history, language arts, economics, and social sciences.

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Heather Whitmire and Mary Haque

The Clemson University Communication Across The Curriculum program is coordinating a creative response for learning (CRL) project to provide students with creative learning and critical thinking opportunities relevant to course content while creating a learning community. Faculty representing numerous disciplines asked their students to respond with creative projects (e.g., drawings, poems, posters, multimedia, sculpture, music, etc.) to the subject matter of the course. Students in Horticulture courses responded by writing poems in a Landscape Appreciation class, designing creative solutions to environmental problems in a Landscape Design Class, and installing an Ethnobotany Garden in a landscape implementation class. The landscape design and implementation classes used a service learning methodology to identify and solve problems in local communities. Following a four-part process of preparation, action, reflection, and celebration, students in the design class completed plans for thirteen theme gardens constituting a Children's garden in the South Carolina Botanical Garden. The following semester, landscape implementation students built the first of the series, an Ethnobotany Garden, using teamwork and university/community partnerships. They also practiced individual creative thinking and building skills through the design and installation of creative projects including a bat house, a stained glass and a broken tile birdhouse, four container gardens, artistic stepping-stones, and a dramatic metal sculpture of a butterfly representing the sustainable wildlife habitat aspect of the Children's garden. College students and faculty working on the Ethnobotany Garden project alone contributed over 1,000 hours to their community while learning more about both the art and the science of landscape design and implementation.

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Robert F. Polomski*, Carri Carver Wallace, Mary Taylor Haque, Lisa K. Wagner, James E. Arnold, Amy D. Craddock, Christian Maloney Cicimurri, and Lisa D. Chancellor

An interdisciplinary team of Clemson Univ. faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students partnered with the South Carolina Botanical Garden staff and children from the “Sprouting Wings” after-school garden program to plan and design a 2.5-acre Children's Garden. Imaginative and educational, the plans call for a series of outdoor theme gardens. Proposals for 13 theme gardens include a “Dinosaur Dig”, a “Food for Thought Garden”, a “Hide-and-Seek Garden”, a “Terraced Sitting Garden”, an “Ethnobotany Garden”, a “Wonders of Water Garden”, a “Learning from Nature Outdoor Classroom”, a “Carolina Fence Garden”, a “Cottage Garden”, a “Bold View Butterfly Garden”, a “Woodland Wonderland”, a “Playful Plaza Garden,” and an “Arbored Entrance and Exit Garden.” Project methodology included research, case studies, site analysis, program development, preliminary plans, master plan, and individual garden designs with plan views, elevation drawings, detail drawings, and plant lists. Using an experiential learning pedagogy, a design class of 15 students contributed an estimated 2,000 hours of work while learning about landscape design. Results included 30 drawing boards depicting research, analysis, and design proposals, which were presented to the South Carolina Botanical Garden Staff for approval in Fall 2003. Note: This material is based upon work supported by the cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, under Agreement No. 2002-38411-122122. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

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Laura C. Merrick

Cucurbita argyrosperma, formerly known as C. mixta, is a squash species native to Mexico and Central America. Cultivars of the species which have been grown in the United States include many of the cushaws and the `Silverseed Gourd. A recent biosystematic analysis-which included studies of experimental and natural hybridization, isozymatic and morphological variation, ethnobotany, and ecological and geographical distribution-has shown that the closest relative of C. argyrosperma is C. moschata. The data reveal intriguing implications for evolution of the genus as a whole, since the previous hypothesis that C. lundelliana is the progenitor of C. moschata is refuted. A wild ancestor, three cultivated varieties and a feral derivative are recognized within C. argyrosperma. Two of the three cultivated botanical varieties-vars. argyrosperma and stenosperma -have been selected in many regions almost exclusively for seed production. The relatively large seeds are marketed either with or without hulls. The other botanical variety, var. callicarpa, has been selected for both fruit and seed production. Northern cultivars of var. callicarpa arc notable for their adaptation to marginal environments, including hot climates and poor soil conditions.

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Kim E. Hummer

-huckleberrying.” Literature Cited AAA Native Arts 2013 21 Feb. 2013. < http://www.aaanativearts.com/canadian_reserves251-300.htm > Allison, I.S. 1945 Pumice at Summer Lake, Oregon Geo. Soc. Amer. Bul. 56 789 808 Black, M.J. 1980 Algonquin ethnobotany: An interpretation of

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Cynthia B. McKenney, Amber Bates, Kaylee Decker, and Ursula K. Schuch

, Renner, TX Day, D.F. 1848 Notes of a military reconnaissance. Report of Major Emory. Buffalo, NY Elmore, F.H. 1944 Ethnobotany of the Navajo. School of American Research, Santa Fe, NM IBM SPSS 2011 IBM SPSS statistics standard edition 20.0. International

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Myrtle P. Shock, Clinton C. Shock, Erik B.G. Feibert, Nancy L. Shaw, Lamont D. Saunders, and Ram K. Sampangi

.S. Brown, C.H. 2011 Linguistic ethnobiology, p. 319–333. In: Anderson, E.N., D.M. Pearsall, E.S. Hunn, and H.J. Turner (eds.). Ethnobiology. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ Jones, V.H. 1941 The nature and status of ethnobotany Chron. Bot. VI 219 221 McCutcheon