endogenous ABA content. In addition, the effect of ethanol disinfection on aseptic seed germination and the prospect of supplying PPM, a broad-spectrum biocide/fungicide ( Niedz, 1998 ), to the germination medium for controlling contamination were evaluated
Ethanol treatment broke dormancy in Gladiolus spp., Freesia spp., Lilium longiflorum Thunb., Zingiber myoga Rose., Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC., Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., and Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. Effectiveness of ethanol depended on species and stage of dormancy.
Britex and Zivdar, water-based polyethylene waxes, were applied in commercial and experimental formulations as spray coating, a single dip, or double dips on `Murcott' tangerine (Citrus reticulate Blanco) fruits. Postharvest waxing of `Murcott' tangerine reduced weight loss but affected the sensory characteristics of the fruit. Charges in fruit weight loss and juice composition occurred in the waxed fruits after 4 weeks of storage at 5C plus 1 week of simulated retail handling at 17C. Changes in internal fruit atmosphere were related to fruit flavor quality.
Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) are two enzymes specifically required for ethanol fermentation. Pyruvate decarboxylase catalyzes the irreversible conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde (AA), and ADH subsequently
mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Under anaerobic or hypoxic conditions (in the absence of oxygen or under conditions of low oxygen, respectively) ethanol is produced from pyruvate in the ethanol fermentation pathway of metabolism
relation to disorder incidence. At harvest and under aerobic storage conditions, apples usually have low acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations, as well as low pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities ( Pesis, 2005 ). Both
Liquid fuels, the most versatile form of energy, primarily are produced from oil. They are subject to wide price fluctuations and critical shortages. Ethanol, which can be used as a liquid fuel or liquid fuel supplement, readily can be produced from starch and sugar feedstocks. Ethanol production from cellulosic sources or biomass can provide renewable, domestically produced fuel from the decentralized sources of U.S. farms and forests. Such production has other stategic implications for the United States, such as strengthening the farm economy, reducing vulnerability to oil boycotts, and reducing the amounts of dollars exported. More information is available on using ethanol in internal combustion engines than any other nonpetroleum-based liquid fuel. For these reasons, ethanol represents the best near-term choice for a liquid fuel from biomass.
such as acetaldehyde and ethanol in citrus fruit can lead to the production of off-flavor ( Chen and Nussinovitch, 2000 , 2001 ; Shaw et al., 1991 ). Coated mandarin fruit are very susceptible to anaerobic respiration ( Cohen et al., 1990
Exogenous application of ethanol (EtOH) vapor to whole tomato fruit or excised pericarp discs inhibits ripening without affecting subsequent quality. Inhibitory EtOH levels are induced in whole tomatoes by a 72 h exposure to anaerobic atmospheres at 20C. In contrast to tomatoes, exposure to EtOH vapor (0 to 6 ml EtOH/kg FW, for 3 to 6 h at 20C) did not retard ripening (e.g., changes in external color, flesh firmness, and soluble solids) of avocado, banana, cucumber, melon, peach, or plum fruit. When the blocked replicates for nectarines were sorted by the firmness of the control fruit, higher levels of EtOH vapor appeared to delay softening of the firmer fruit. From 0 to 4 ml EtOH/kg FW was injected as 95% EtOH into the seed cavity of melon fruit through a surface sterilized area near the equator of the fruit with a plastic syringe fitted with a 7.5 cm long hypodermic needle. Injection of 1 to 4 ml EtOH/kg FW inhibited the softening of `Honey Dew' and muskmelons. Slight tissue necrosis near the site of injection was noted in a few fruit. Unlike the ripening inhibition of tomatoes which is relatively insensitive to the stage of maturity, the inhibition of melon ripening by EtOH appeared to be significantly affected by the maturity of the fruit.
disruption and lead to increased levels of acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and ethyl lactate, which confer undesirable aromas to the fruit ( Kader, 2003b ). In an attempt to reduce the risks caused by CAs with high levels of CO 2 , other gases have been