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Luqi Li, Matthew D. Sousek, Keenan L. Amundsen, and Zachary J. Reicher

cultivars have been determined at various locations in the United States. The optimal date of planting was April to May for ‘Sharp’s Improved’ buffalograss in Kansas ( Fry et al., 1993 ), whereas fastest establishment in Colorado occurred with seeding in

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Kenton W. Peterson, Robert C. Shearman, Roch E. Gaussoin, Garald L. Horst, and Walter H. Schacht

seed, sod, or plugs. Many of the problems that were commonly associated with poor establishment of seeded buffalograss have been remedied with the release of newer, turf-type cultivars ( Shearman et al., 2005 ). Buffalograss sod often experiences

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Ronnie W. Schnell, Donald M. Vietor, Richard H. White, Tony L. Provin, and Clyde L. Munster

Organic amendments, including municipal and animal sources of biosolids, can be applied to improve soil physical and chemical properties and turfgrass establishment, growth, and quality ( McCoy, 1998 ). Although the amendments contribute total and

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Ty A. McClellan, Roch E. Gaussoin, Robert C. Shearman, Charles S. Wortmann, Martha Mamo, Garald L. Horst, and David B. Marx

, 1973 ; Bigelow et al., 2001 ; Callahan et al., 2001 ). Retention of nutrients in sand-based putting green root zones is especially difficult during the first year of establishment ( Carrow et al., 2001 ; Guertal, 2008 ). Putting greens are dynamic

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John B. Workman, Patrick E. McCullough, F. Clint Waltz, James T. Brosnan, and Gerald M. Henry

been reported to inhibit establishment of cool- and warm-season turfgrasses from seed. Prepackage products that include auxin herbicides 2,4-D, dicamba, and MCPP are recommended to be applied 3 to 4 weeks before seed is sown or after two to three mowing

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Diego Gómez de Barreda, Jialin Yu, and Patrick E. McCullough

In Georgia, cool-season grasses are primarily seeded in fall, rather than spring, to optimize establishment and minimize competition with warm-season annual grassy weeds. However, soil disruption, fertilization, and regular irrigation during

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Jack Fry, Randy Taylor, Bob Wolf, Dick Stuntz, and Alan Zuk

treating the perennial ryegrass sward with a nonselective herbicide before seeding bermudagrass. This may require that the area be closed during the establishment period, however, resulting in a significant loss of revenue at some facilities, such as golf

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Aaron J. Patton, Jon M. Trappe, and Michael D. Richardson

, 1960 ) to increase germination ( McGinnies, 1960 ) and establishment rates ( Portz et al., 1993 ), as well as to reduce erosion ( Krenitsky et al., 1998 ). Cover technology has been well-documented to influence the establishment of cool-season swards

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Julie Guckenberger Price, Amy N. Wright, Robert S. Boyd, and Kenneth M. Tilt

irrigation and fertilization. Root growth into the surrounding soil is vital to plant survival and establishment. To make the plants attractive for purchase, nursery-grown plants are often heavily irrigated and fertilized to encourage rapid shoot growth. Once

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Bielinski M. Santos, Teresa P. Salame-Donoso, and Alicia J. Whidden

between housing developments and production fields using deep fresh water wells. High-impact sprinkler irrigation (4 to 5 gal/min per head) is used during strawberry production for two primary reasons: transplant establishment and freeze protection. For