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Dao-Jing Wang, Jing-Wen Zeng, Wen-Tao Ma, Min Lu, and Hua-Ming An

the epidermis in RR is composed of approximately one to three layers of cells. The cells are small, round, and tightly packed. The cell wall is thick, and the cell cavity is large. The cells of the 8 to 10 layers proximate to the inner epidermis belong

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Kendra M. Blaker and James W. Olmstead

blueberry fruit and have thin, non-lignified cell walls and a large, mostly water-filled vacuole ( Harker et al., 1997 ). The epidermis is composed of specialized parenchyma cells that have thickened primary cell walls and are covered by a cuticle consisting

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Eckhard Grimm, Stefanie Peschel, Tobias Becker, and Moritz Knoche

al., 2007 ). Fourth, the epidermal cells are oriented perpendicular to the style/pedicel axis, the microcracks in the cuticle parallel to the style/pedicel axis suggesting that failure of the cuticle is caused by strain in the underlying epidermis

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Bishnu P. Khanal and Moritz Knoche

protective barrier in water transport, gas exchange, and pathogen defense ( Dominguez et al., 2011b ; Jeffree, 1996 ; Kerstiens, 1996 ; Riederer and Schreiber, 2001 ). The cuticle is deposited on the outer cell wall of the epidermis and also impregnates

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Eckhard Grimm, Stefanie Peschel, and Moritz Knoche

comprised the cuticle, epidermis, hypodermis plus some adhering parenchyma. ES with washers attached were transferred to the stage of a dissecting microscope (magnification ×1 to 3.2, MZ10F; Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany) or a fluorescence microscope

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Sylvia M. Blankenship and Michael D. Boyette

`Beauregard', `Jewel', `Hernandez', `Carolina Rose', and `White Delight' sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] roots were placed in chambers for curing at 30 °C and 50%, 70%, or 85% relative humidity (RH) for 1 week. Uncured roots were held at 15 °C and 90% RH. After curing, roots were removed temporarily from the chambers, and chamber conditions were reset for the following storage treatments: 15 °C/85% RH; 18 °C/70% RH; and 18 °C/50% RH. Roots were stored 3 to 4 weeks. Experiments were in factorial arrangements so all combinations of curing and storage conditions were present. Experiments were conducted in two seasons. Roots were subjected to a pressurized water jet and the amount of skinning that occurred was visually rated several times during curing and storage. Weight loss was measured in `Beauregard'. Susceptibility to skinning changed over time and with the temperature and humidity conditions. Curing at 30 °C and any humidity between 50% and 85% generally improved epidermal adhesion, but there were exceptions. Lower humidities promoted greater weight loss. Epidermal adhesion changed during storage, becoming both stronger and weaker, indicating that sweetpotato epidermis is in an active state even after curing. The standard curing and storage conditions of 30 °C/85% RH and 15 °C/85% RH, respectively, are still a reasonable practice.

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Yin Xu, Yizhou Ma, Nicholas P. Howard, Changbin Chen, Cindy B.S. Tong, Gail Celio, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Renae E. Moran

, respectively. Mean scald incidence scored 7 d after removal from cold storage varied among the locations ( Fig. 5B ). Table 1. Mean wax, epidermis, and hypodermis cell sizes and abbreviated analyses of variance of factors affecting peel microstructural traits

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Eckhard Grimm and Moritz Knoche

uptake through the skin surface. Here, the rate is related to the difference between the value of Ψ for an adhering water droplet (probably very close to zero) and that of the epidermis ( Beyer and Knoche, 2002 ). Second, for vascular flow through the

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W. Robert Trentham, Carl E. Sams, and William S. Conway

differentially staining the epidermis from all other tissue and substances present. PAS staining, including an aldehyde blockade control and cleansing properly with a freshly prepared SO 2 rinse, produced an intense PAS staining in tomato fruit epidermis

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Martin Brüggenwirth and Moritz Knoche

the in vivo strain that existed before excision ( Brüggenwirth et al., 2014 ; Knoche and Peschel, 2006 ). The ES so-obtained comprise cuticle, epidermis, hypodermis, and some adhering mesocarp tissue. The surface area ( A ) of the bulging ES is