Apples ( Malus × sylvestris var. domestica ) are an important source of polyphenols (phenolic compounds) in the human diet ( Hertog et al., 1992 ) and a classic example of fruit susceptibility to enzymatic browning, which is a major problem for
Daniel Ferreira Holderbaum, Tomoyuki Kon, Tsuyoshi Kudo and Miguel Pedro Guerra
Yaguang Luo and Max E Patterson
The control of enzymatic browning of apple slices with papain is presented. Fresh apple slices dipped in a 1% Papain solution for 2 min did not brown for more than 12 hours at room temperature. Papain also gave good browning control of sliced pears. Further study indicated that polyphenoloxidase, a key enzyme involved in browning, was inactivated by this treatment.
T.M. Gradziel and Dechun Wang
Rate of brown rot lesion development following inoculation with Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) honey varied within clingstone peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) germplasm evaluated in 1990 and 1991. High levels of resistance were identified in selections derived from the Brazilian clingstone peach cultivar Bolinha. Resistance appeared to be limited to the epidermal tissue. No relation was detected between brown rot resistance and concentration of phenolic compounds or polyphenol oxidase activity in the susceptible California germplasm. An inverse relation was observed between disease severity and rating for phenolic-related discoloration when `Bolinha' derived selections were analyzed. A moderate positive correlation was observed for all germplasm tested between genotype means for phenolic content and enzymatic browning. Any causal relationship, if it exists, between phenolic content and brown rot resistance is obscured by an array of physical and chemical changes in the maturing fruit.
Ting Min, En-chao Liu, Jun Xie, Yang Yi, Li-mei Wang, You-wei Ai and Hong-xun Wang
enzymatic browning ( Eissa et al., 2006 ; Pma, 2006 ; Son et al., 2015 ). At present, the methods for controlling the browning of lotus root mainly include chemical treatment ( Kwon and Baek, 2014 ; Lu et al., 2007 ), modified atmosphere (MA) packaging
M. López-Serrano and A. Ros Barceló
Levels and histochemical localization of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, and levels of anthocyanins and (+)-catechin, were studied in fruit of two strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) cultivars (`Oso Grande' and `Chandler'), which show different degrees of susceptibility to enzymatic browning after processing. Although the levels of anthocyanins at the processing-ripe stage may be important in determining pigment stability, and therefore market suitability, the color stability of `Chandler' is apparently determined by the lower endogenous levels of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in the processing-ripe stage, which are also accompanied by a lower (+)-catechin content. Polyphenol oxidase was localized almost exclusively in the cortex and to a lesser extent in the pith, showing a complementary pattern to that shown by peroxidase, which was localized in the vascular bundles. Since peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase showed a complementary localization pattern in the fruit, these results strongly suggest a synergic role for these two oxidative enzymes in pigment decay and the associated browning reaction, which occurs in processed strawberry fruit and their derived foods.
Kate M. Evans, Bruce H. Barritt, Bonnie S. Konishi, Lisa J. Brutcher and Carolyn F. Ross
. Its cut flesh shows very low enzymatic browning, making it suitable for fresh-cut-slice packaging and for use in salads. It is suited to the fresh market both directly off the tree and out of medium- and long-term storage. Origin ‘WA 38’ originated
Pavlos Tsouvaltzis, Angelos Deltsidis and Jeffrey K. Brecht
The main quality defect in fresh-cut potato is enzymatic browning that develops on the cut surfaces of the tissue. Peeling and slicing of tubers cause cellular disruption leading to decompartmentalization of substrates and enzymes ( Brecht et al
Celso Luiz Moretti
Sweetpotatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) `Brazl,ndia Roxa', `Brazl,ncia Branca', and `Princesa' were minimally processed and evaluated for enzymatic browning during a 5-day storage period. Selected roots were washed and then sliced, sanitized (NaClO, 200 mg·kg–1), and centrifuged inside a cold-room (14 ± 1 °C). After centrifugation, roots were packed inside plastic films (multi-layer nylon), vacuum was added, and bags were stored inside cold-rooms at 3 °C. Daily, sweetpotato roots were evaluated to enzymatic browning according to the following scale of notes: 5 = no browning; 4 = slightly browned; 3 = few browning; 2 = browned; 1 = very browned; 0 - extremely browned. Roots showing notes below 3 were considered unsuitable for commercialization. `Brazl,ndia Roxa' and `Brazl,ndia Branca' were the cultivars that showed less browning, being significantly superior than `Princesa', which showed the highest index of enzymatic browning among the studied cultivars. At the 5th day of storage, `Princesa' showed a pronounced browning, being considered unsuitable for commercialization, according to standards employed in the present work. On the other hand, `Brazl,ndia Roxa' and `Brazl,ndia Branca' could still be commercialized after the 5-day storage period.
M. Radi, M. Mahrouz, A. Jaouad, M. Tacchini, S. Aubert, M. Hugues and M.J. Amiot
Phenolic composition and susceptibility to browning were determined for nine apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars. Chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, and rutin (or quercetin-3-rutinoside) were the major phenolic compounds in apricots. In addition to these compounds, other quercetin-3-glycosides and procyanidins have been detected. Chlorogenic acid content decreased rapidly during enzymatic browning, but the susceptibility to browning seemed to be more strongly correlated with the initial amount of flavan-3-ols (defined as catechin monomers and procyanidins). As chlorogenic acid is certainly the best substrate for polyphenol oxidase, the development of brown pigments depended mainly on the flavan-3-ol content.
H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghe*, Dennis P. Murr, Jennifer R. DeEll and Joseph Odumeru
Wounding during processing triggers physiological reactions that limits shelf-life of fresh-cut apples. Exposure of `Empire' and `Crispin' apples at harvest to the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, SmartFresh™) on the maintenance of fresh-cut apple quality was evaluated in combination with post-cut dipping of NatureSeal™. Efficacy of 1-MCP on fresh-cut physiology and quality depended on the storage duration and apple cultivar. Ethylene production and respiration of apple slices were inhibited by 1-MCP but not by NatureSeal. Total volatiles produced by fresh-cut apples was not affected by the treatments. 1-MCP influenced the quality attributes of fresh-cut apple slices prepared from apples stored either 4 months in cold storage or 6 months in controlled atmosphere. Enzymatic browning and softening of the cut-surface, total soluble solids, and total microbial growth were suppressed by 1-MCP in `Empire' apples. Overall, the influence of 1-MCP on quality attributes in `Crispin' apple slices was marginal. NatureSeal consistently maintained the firmness of fresh-cut apple slices held at 4 °C for up to 21 days. The additive effect of 1-MCP in the maintenance of apple quality is an advantage for processing and marketing of fresh-cut apples.