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Sebastain N. Awondo, Esendugue Greg Fonsah and Dennis J. Gray

studies, only the traditional budgeting approach and sensitivity analysis was employed. In this study, we develop and investigate a simple framework for stochastic farm enterprise budgets. Specifically, we estimate the costs, revenues, and profitability

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Xuan Wei, Hayk Khachatryan and Alicia Rihn

across crops. This information will help growers determine which crops are relatively profitable. So far, such information has been neglected in enterprise budgeting analyses of ornamental production. By comparing and aggregating a set of crops similar to

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David Conner and Anusuya Rangarajan

management, and enterprise budgets for the farm focal crops that reflect the two seasons of production (2002 and 2003). The use of budgeting tools, including enterprise budgets, has been a staple of farm management education ( Kay and Edwards, 1999 ; Osburn

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Olha Sydorovych, Cary L. Rivard, Suzanne O’Connell, Chris D. Harlow, Mary M. Peet and Frank J. Louws

In this study, we conducted an economic analysis of high tunnel and open-field production systems of heirloom tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) based on a two-year study at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS) located in Goldsboro, eastern North Carolina. The research site was transitional organic using organically certified inputs and practices on land not yet certified. Production costs and returns were documented in each system and provide a useful decision tool for growers. Climatic conditions varied dramatically in 2007 compared with 2008 and differentially affected total and marketable yields in each system. Profits were higher in the open-field system and the high tunnels in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using a range of market prices from $1.60/lb to $3.60/lb and a range of fruit marketability levels from 35% to 80%. Both systems were profitable except at the lowest price point and the lowest percent marketability level in high tunnel in 2007. At $2.60/lb, seasonal average sale price reported by growers for this region, and depending on percent marketability levels, the payback period for high tunnels ranged from two to five years. Presented sensitivity tables will enable decision makers to knowledgably estimate economic potential of open-field and high tunnel systems based on expected local prices and fruit quality parameters.

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Olya Rysin and Frank J. Louws

Grafting could potentially become an important part of integrated pest management programs in vegetable crops in the United States due to increased pathogen densities, reliance on pathogen susceptible varieties, increased use of organic and high tunnel production systems, limited land or input resources, value-added benefits, and the loss of, or regulatory restrictions on, soil fumigants. Adoption of this technology imposes additional costs on growers due to significantly higher grafted transplant prices, but associated yield improvements are potentially more than sufficient to offset the higher transplant costs. Therefore, the economic impact of the technology adoption depends highly on the specific circumstances of each grower. In this study, we propose a decision tool for growers to facilitate grafting technology adoption. We demonstrate an application of the proposed tool to a scenario based on real-life data for the open-field production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The results show that based on a 30% loss in marketable yields due to disease pressure in nongrafted systems, yield improvements in the grafted system with resistant rootstock were sufficient to offset higher transplant and harvesting costs and resulted in higher net revenues. Net revenue estimates were $7126/acre in the nongrafted system and $8374/acre in the grafted system. The sensitivity analysis resulted in positive net revenues in the grafted system ranging from $108 to $12,328 per acre. Estimated marketable yield required in the grafted system to breakeven with the nongrafted system was 73,880 or 19,980 lb/acre more than marketable yield in the nongrafted system.

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V. A. Khan, C. Stevens and J. E. Brown

Early okra production was evaluated using `Clemson Spineless' transplants grown under clear polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VCM), black polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VBM), clear polyethylene mulch (CM), black polyethylene mulch (BM) and bare soil (BS) for two years. Early yield (1st four harvests in early June) was significantly greater for VCM treatment while total marketable yield at the end of 8 wks were significantly greater for VCM, BM, and VBM treatments, respectively in both years. Enterprise budget analysis showed that VCM and BM treatments had the highest net-return to management on a per acre basis.

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V. A. Khan, C. Stevens and J. E. Brown

Early okra production was evaluated using `Clemson Spineless' transplants grown under clear polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VCM), black polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VBM), clear polyethylene mulch (CM), black polyethylene mulch (BM) and bare soil (BS) for two years. Early yield (1st four harvests in early June) was significantly greater for VCM treatment while total marketable yield at the end of 8 wks were significantly greater for VCM, BM, and VBM treatments, respectively in both years. Enterprise budget analysis showed that VCM and BM treatments had the highest net-return to management on a per acre basis.

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N. Baharanyi, E. G. Rhoden and V. Khan

This study examined the potential economic returns of using four different sources of nitrogen on `calabaza' pumpkins, a low moisture variety consumed as starch by many foreign nationals. Yields were 12.4, 12.6, 8.2 and 9.5 kg/plant for ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and urea, respectively. Assuming 1989 farm gate prices in Alabama and other appropriate cost for vaious inputs used, the estimated return at $0.30/lb of pumpkin was $10,003, $10,115, $6,105 and $7,371/acre for different sources of nitrogen, respectively. The relatively higher return from sodium nitrate use explains the use of this source of nitrogen on rented land. A sensitivity analysis of the enterprise budgets shows a breakeven price between $0.02 and $0.10/lb.

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Harrison Hughes

The food crop concentration in the horticulture major was revised in response to discussions with students, faculty, and county agents to emphasis more service learning. A requirement for an internship or practicum was added. The practicum entails the design, maintenance, and data collection of the vegetable and small fruit display gardens. Emphasis will be on sustainable production and on collection of information for use in extension fact sheets for the citizens of Colorado. Other changes include the modularization of the commodity courses to provide greater flexibility and the addition of a capstone course. The capstone course will involve greater interaction with industry in the state and has a requirement for the development of both an enterprise budget as well as a production plan for a commercial operation.

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N. Baharanyi, C. Stevens, V. Khan and A. Siaway

This study evaluated the potential economic returns of two years of on-farm plastic mulch experiments for `Market Topper' cabbage and `Vates' collard greens conducted on a field with serious weed and nematode problems in Butler County, Alabama. Assuming 1987 and 1988 wholesale prices for vegetable crops in Alabama and other appropriate prices for various inputs used, and after adjusting the cost of plastics in the enterprise budgets for having used the same in the two years, the estimated return for cabbage harvested from plastic mulch experiments was 5 times greater in 1987 ($2,776.83 and $551.02) and more than 10 times in 1988 ($2,775.00 and $49.40) than from non-covered field. The estimated return for collard greens from plastic mulch experiments was also 5 times greater in 19.87 ($1,416.70 and $287.96) and more than 10 times in 1988 ($339.50 and -$444.20) than from non-covered field. Questions remain as to the perceived economic benefits for other farmers and the non-biodegradable nature of the plastic used.