diploids. That approach is time-consuming and technically difficult, especially for some woody species. Endosperm in angiosperms is naturally triploid and in vitro culture of endosperm explants has been used as a method for producing triploid plants
endosperm or embryos were visible, so embryo sacs or embryos could be isolated ( Table 2 ). Thirty-eight seedlings were obtained from 23 fruits of 3 x × 2 x crosses and 96 seedlings from 20 fruits of 3 x × 4 x crosses ( Table 2 ). Only 090047 was not
The development of the endosperm of the ‘Maygold’ peach may be used to predict the optimum time for chemical thinning. With this variety 3-chlorophenoxy alpha-propionamide (CPA) was most effective when fruit diameter and seed length were 24 and 13-14 mm, respectively. This stage occurred 29 days after full bloom when cytogenesis was completed in 35 per cent of the fruit.
Capsicum annuum (‘Early Calwonder’) seeds germinated (radicle protrusion) in 8 days at 15°C and 4 days at 25°. The seeds have an endosperm 7 to 9 cells in thickness which lies directly in front of the radicle. The external appearance of the endosperm did not change until one day before radicle emergence, when the endosperm in front of the radicle enlarged and protruded outward. This change was accompanied by breakdown and loss of endosperm cellular integrity and reduction in endosperm thickness directly in front of the radicle, but not in other regions of the endosperm. Gibberellic acid (GA4+7) decreased the time for appearance of the protruding endosperm and radicle protrusion through the seed coat by one day. Cell wall degrading activity was detectable during the early stages of germination and became extremely high after radicle emergence. Seeds treated with 100 ppm GA4+7 showed slightly increased enzyme activity during early germination and differences became more pronounced as germination progressed. Cellulase activity was not found in the extracts, but seed enzyme preparations degraded a galactomannan substrate. The enzyme exhibited only endohydrolytic activity, indicating an enzyme which may participate in the weakening of cell wall. It was postulated that an endomannanase is needed for endosperm breakdown in front of the radicle in order for rapid germination of pepper to occur. A reduction in germination temperature from 25° to 15° reduced the rate of radicle movement through the seed coat by one half.
Cucumber is a species whose seeds have a semipermeable barrier restricting transport of solutes. A thin membrane beneath the testa, the perisperm–endosperm (PE) envelope, acts as a barrier to apoplastic permeability of cucumber and other
Five to 6 weeks elapsed between full bloom and zygote division of ‘Kerman’ pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Various patterns of cell division in the proembryo, after transverse division in the zygote, brought about formation of a globular to heart-shaped embryo in the following 3–4 weeks. Cell enlargement in the cotyledons during the subsequent 4–5 weeks contributed mainly to final embryo size. The transition from free-nuclear to cellular endosperm was not limited to a definite stage of embryo development. The endosperm was almost digested by the time the embryo reached its ultimate size.
Metabolic characteristics of developing sugary-l maize (Zea mays L.) endosperms were investigated. In the later stages of development (>30 days postpollination), sugary-1 kernels maintained higher levels of many enzyme activities and retained more moisture than normal kernels. Higher enzyme activities were attributed to moisture retention and were not associated with any increase in dry weight accumulation. Of enzyme activities measured at 20 days postpollination, that of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was higher in sugary-1 kernels than in normal, whereas total amylase, a-amylase, and pullulanase activities were lower. Experiments testing the effects of zero, one, two, and three doses of the sugary-1 gene in OH43 endosperms indicated that the sugary-1 phenotype was not expressed until three doses of the sugary-1 gene were present. Decreased activities of amylases, but not of pullulanase, were attributed to an interference in detection by phytoglycogen. Increased ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity is attributed to a response by the maize endosperm cells to increased sucrose concentrations.
Germination studies indicated that increasing priming duration (-1.0 MPa at 20 °C for 7, 14, or 21 days) increased `Moss Curled' parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill] germination rate quadratically and seed moisture content linearly. A histological and anatomical study was conducted to identify and/or quantify principle mericarp organ or tissue volume changes influenced by priming duration. Embryo volume increased as priming duration increased from 7 to 21 days (0.014 to 0.034 mm3), and this was due more to radicle (0.007 to 0.022 mm3) than to cotyledon (0.006 to 0.011 mm3) growth. Concomitant with increased embryo volume was increased volume of the depleted layer (space formation, surrounding the embryo), from 0.038 after 7 days to 0.071 mm3 after 21 days, and increased hydrolysis of central endosperm (a thick-walled endosperm type). In nonprimed mericarps, central endosperm cells constituted 97% of the endosperm volume. The remaining 3% was comprised of 1% depleted layer and 2% distal endosperm (small, thin-walled, and irregularly shaped endosperm cells). During 7 or 21 days of priming, ≈10% or 40%, respectively, of central endosperm cells were hydrolyzed centrifugally around the embryo with a corresponding decrease in volume of central endosperm with thick cell walls. In addition, distal endosperm cells adjacent to the depleted layer, containing reserve materials, were digested of contents following 21 days priming, and sometimes, following 7 days priming. A long priming duration resulted in degradation of pericarp tissues, as indicated visually and by a decline in pericarp volume. We hypothesize that priming duration of parsley primarily influences radicle growth and centrifugal digestion and utilization of central and distal endosperm, resulting in a larger depleted layer required for embryo volume increases. Secondary events influenced by priming duration include cotyledon growth and degradation of pericarp tissues.
Endosperm mutants of maize often exhibit poor seed quality, as indicated by poor germination and seedling vigor. The measurement of seed leachate electrolyte conductivity (SLEC) is a rapid method of evaluating seed quality. Generally, high SLEC indicates poor seed quality. Other endosperm types in addition to sugary (su) are becoming important in the sweet corn industry. To facilitate the conversion of inbreds to new endosperm types and maintain acceptable levels of seed quality, it would be useful to determine the relationship between endosperm type and SLEC. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of inbred background, endosperm type, and inbred × endosperm interactions on SLEC and to determine the relationship between seed weight and SLEC. Ten seed weight and SLEC of six near-isogenic lines differing for 10 endosperm types were measured. Ten combinations of the following endosperms were used; sugary (su), waxy (wx), sugary-2 (su2), dull (du), and shrunken-2 (sh2). Significant differences in SLEC were found among endosperm types: sh2 had the highest SLEC (186.1 dS·m−1) and Su su2 the lowest (62.9 dS·m−1). Over endosperm types, 10-seed weight and SLEC were negatively correlated (r = 0.84**). This negative relationship may be due to damage suffered by the pericarp during the collapse of the endosperm of the lighter endosperm types. Significant differences in SLEC also were found among inbreds. Values ranged from 162.3 dS·m−1 to 55.7 dS·m−1. Among inbreds, SLEC and 10-seed weight was positively correlated (r = 0.82*). Endosperm by inbred interactions had significant effects on SLEC. This interaction is of importance to those converting inbreds to different endosperm types and should be considered when choosing seed parents for hybrid production.
‘Tonda gentile delle Langhe’ hazelnut bloomed from 22 Dec. to 19 Jan. Fertilization occurred about 5 months later, in the last 10 days of May. In the first days of June, the embryo was globular whereas the free nuclear endosperm had started to become cellular. Around the middle of June the embryo was heart-shaped and the endosperm was entirely cellular. In the following 2 weeks, the endosperm became vacuolated and then disintegrated. Cotyledons formed (torpedo stage) and grew quickly, filling the ovule by the end of June. The seed had its final shape and dimension by 20 July, but the embryonal axis continued elongating until nut maturity, 15 to 30 Aug. Mature embryos contained six to eight leaf primordia, the apical meristem, and the radicle.