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Ibrahim Demir, Tuba Celikkol, Golge Sarıkamıs, and Ceren Eksi

production to obtain optimum seedling emergence and uniformity requires high-quality seeds. Germination tests are used to evaluate the production of normal seedlings under optimal germination conditions ( Atwater, 1978 ; Geneve, 2008 ). However, these do not

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Jared A. Hoyle, J. Scott McElroy, and Elizabeth A. Guertal

reaching 100 cm in length ( Baird and Dickens, 1991 ). These weed species inhabit landscapes encompassing many different soil types and textures. Weed seed germination and emergence depend on many factors, including species, light, temperature, pH, osmotic

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Adam Newby, James E. Altland, Charles H. Gilliam, and Glenn Wehtje

(personal observation). Spores are viable for ≈1 year after release from the mother plant ( O'Hanlon, 1926 ). Limited research has addressed pre-emergence liverwort control. Preventive liverwort control is preferable to hand removal. Rhizoids that grow along

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Martin M. Williams II and Carl A. Bradley

Agriculture (USDA), 2016 ]. Poor crop establishment is a major problem in edamame. Poor seedling emergence and uneven crop stands appear to be the norm in field trials, from North Dakota ( Duppong and Hatterman-Valenti, 2005 ) to Georgia ( Rao et al., 2002

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Laura E. Crawford and Martin M. Williams II

some management techniques might translate from grain-type soybean to edamame, research to confirm or deny their appropriateness is lacking. Poor emergence is a common theme in field research on edamame ( Duppong and Hatterman-Valenti 2005 ; Rao et al

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Bernardo Ordás, Rosa A. Malvar, Amando Ordás, and Pedro Revilla

enhancer hybrids ( se1se1 genotype) have a higher quality for human consumption than the sugary hybrids ( Se1Se1 genotype) but reduced emergence and poor early vigor ( Douglass et al., 1993 ; Evensen and Boyer, 1986 ). As a result of consumer demand, the

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James W. Frisby and Schuyler D. Seeley

Abbreviations: E, emergence; ED, endodormancy; G, germination; St, stratification. 1 Graduate Research Assistant. 2 Professor. This report is based, in part, on research conducted and supported as part of SAES Western Regional Research Project W-130

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Virender Kumar, Daniel C. Brainard, and Robin R. Bellinder

, 2003 ). After incorporation into soil, cover crop residues may suppress weeds by inhibiting weed emergence and growth through allelopathy ( Kumar et al., 2008b ; Weston, 1996 ), immobilizing nitrogen ( Dyck and Liebman, 1994 ; Kumar et al., 2008a

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Ken Takahata, Yoko Mine, Atsukiyo Karimata, and Hiroyuki Miura

Cell trays for raising vegetable seedlings on a large scale have become increasingly popular because of their low cost; however, the method yields poor emergence rates due to the high temperatures when lettuce seeds are sown in the summer

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Charlene M. Grahn, Barbara Hellier, Chris Benedict, and Carol Miles

. At 20 °C, lettuce seed germination occurs on average 2 d after planting at 1 cm depth, whereas at 5 °C emergence occurs an average of 15 d after planting, and at 3 °C or lower, lettuce seed fails to germinate ( Wagenvoort and Bierhuizen, 1977