; Medeiros et al., 2003 ). For transformation and other genetic improvement schemes, an efficient, rapid, and dependable regeneration system is required. Somatic embryogenesis is a regeneration scheme that is generally preferred over other in vitro
Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, Kanniah Rajasekaran, and Rowena Y. Kelley
Dušica Ćalić, Nina Devrnja, Jelena Milojević, Igor Kostić, Dušica Janošević, Snežana Budimir, and Snežana Zdravković-Korać
somatic embryogenesis (SSE) induction has only been reported in horse chestnut ( Ćalić et al., 2005a ), red chestnut ( Zdravković et al., 2008 ), and yellow bucket ( Ćalić et al., 2005b ). These studies were specifically focused on SSE on primary horse
Yihui Cui, Peng Zhao, Hongqiang An, Nan Lv, Zifeng Zhang, Wei Pei, and Wanjun Wang
embryogenesis may provide an alternative system to study this process in orchids. Somatic embryogenesis, a regeneration technique effective in plant mass propagation, has been established in many species, e.g., Daucus carota ( Lee et al., 2001 ; Nishiwaki et
Les Frey, Yehoshua Saranga, and Jules Janick
Somatic embryogenesis was induced from internodal callus of `Scania', `Improved White Sim', and `Sandra' carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The optimum protocol for the induction of somatic embryogenesis included initiation of callus in liquid basal Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 3.0 μm 2,4-D followed by transfer to liquid basal medium lacking 2,4-D for embryo development. Somatic embryos originated from single cells and early embryonic development proceeded conventionally (i.e., via globular, heart-shaped, and torpedo stages), but clearly developed apical or root meristems were not always formed. A few embryos developed into seedlings and were acclimatized to ex vitro conditions. Chemical name used: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).
Patricia Yolanda Zapata-Castillo, Adriana-Canto Flick, Guadalupe López-Puc, Anabel Solís-Ruiz, Felipe Barahona-Pérez, Nancy Santana-Buzzy, and Lourdes Iglesias-Andreu
; Buyukalaca and Mavituna, 1996 ; Ezura et al., 1993 ; Fari and Czako, 1981 ; Ge et al., 1998 ; Gunay and Rao, 1978 ; Phillips and Hubstenberger, 1985 ; Valera-Montero and Ochoa-Alejo, 1992 ), and although less frequently, somatic embryogenesis has also
Nancy Santana-Buzzy, Guadalupe López-Puc, Adriana Canto-Flick, Felipe Barredo-Pool, Eduardo Balam-Uc, Susana Avilés-Viñas, Daniela Solís-Marroquín, Carlos Lecona-Guzmán, Jericó Jabín Bello-Bello, Eunice Gómez-Uc, and Javier O. Mijangos-Cortés
Somatic embryogenesis can be described as the process through which haploid or diploid somatic cells develop into different kind of plants through the characteristic embryological stages without fusion of gametes ( Williams and Maheswaran, 1986
Shahraban Bastaki, Mostafa AboEl-Nil, and Mahdi Abdal
Eggplant (Solanum melonga L.) cotyledons were used to form somatic embryos for somaclonal induction and for selection of salt tolerant genotypes in a genetic improvement program. Naphthalene acetic acid at concentrations ranged from 5 uM to 85 uM induced embryogenesis when cultures were incubated under 16 hrs of light photoperiod. NAA was the only growth regulator required, and the addition of kinetine and benzyl adenine inhibited embryo formation. High frequency embryogenesis formed in 2 week old cotyledons when cultured on a medium supplemented with 43 uM NAA. Data showed that varieties varied in their embryogenesis potential and that cotyledons were the most responsive tissue. Somatic embryos germinated into plantlets when transferred into media without any growth regulators. Somatic embryos were plated on germination media supplemented with Kuwait brackish water to increase the total dissolved salts in the medium from 4,770 ppm to 30,000 ppm in seven equal increments. Brackish water at all concentrations caused embryos to revert into profuse callus growth.
Akira Sugiura, Yoshiko Matsuda-Habu, Mei Gao, Tomoya Esumi, and Ryutaro Tao
, plant regeneration from cultured tissues or cells always takes place through adventitious bud formation ( Tao et al., 1988 , 1992 , 1997 ; Tao and Sugiura, 1992a ). Only one report is available on somatic embryogenesis from leaf segments of persimmon
Li Xu, Suzhen Huang, Yulin Han, and Haiyan Yuan
). Somatic embryogenesis is the fastest system of plant regeneration and generally considered to be prerequisite for genetic transformation ( Jeknic et al., 1999 ; Karami et al., 2006 ). Therefore, several protocols for iris regeneration via somatic
Xia Xu, Jiang Lu, and O. Lamikanra
Low frequency of in vitro regeneration has hampered the adoption of genetic engineering technique for improving the quality of muscadine grape. This study is to develop a straightforward method for high-frequency regeneration of muscadine grapes in vitro. Leaves, petioles, and immature ovules of muscadine grapes were cultured on various media. Embryogenic callus, somatic embryos were formed after 9 weeks inoculated on embryo rescue (ER) medium. The somatic embryos were isolated and subcultured on fresh medium to promote enlargement and increase the number of uniformly sized somatic embryos. Of the medium tested (MS, NN, and ER), the ER medium was the best for somatic embryo growth and multiplication. The somatic embryogenic lines were maintained by transferring the embryos to the fresh ER medium every 4 weeks. Germination was achieved by transferring these embryos to woody plant medium or NN medium. The frequency of somatic embryogenesis of embryo germination appeared to be genotype dependent. The establishment of the somatic embryogenesis system in this study should be a step forward in directly transferring a foreign gene into muscadine grape.