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Laise S. Moreira and Matthew D. Clark

fertilization of the embryo and endosperm, but no viable seed is produced as a result of embryo abortion during development ( Stout, 1936 ). The resultant berry contains a “seed trace,” or underdeveloped ovule of varying size, which may or may not have an

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Arancha Arbeloa, Ma Elena Daorden, Elena García, Pilar Andreu, and Juan A. Marín

for the seeds to germinate with conventional methods. Low-viability seeds also occur either when the embryos come from early-maturing fruits where seeds do not reach the mature stage or when the embryos come from stenospermic seedless fruits such as in

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Fengxia Shao, Sen Wang, Saiyang Zhang, Juan Chen, and Can Feng

continue to be useful in the future ( Liu et al., 2014 ). However, embryo abortion is a common phenomenon in jujube that prevents the formation of viable seeds and restricts cross-breeding efficiency; therefore, obtaining hybrid progeny remains a major

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Lu Zhang, Emilio Laca, Cara J. Allan, Narges M. Mahvelati, and Louise Ferguson

become the embryo (kernel) containing the cotyledons and the axis. Cotyledons are the edible nut meat. Pistachio nut growth has three stages: 1) hull and shell expansion that produces the final in-shell nut size; 2) thickening and hardening of the

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Mary Lewis, Matthew Chappell, Donglin Zhang, and Rebekah Maynard

Embryo rescue (ER), or the excision and culturing of immature zygotic embryos from developing seeds, is conducted under aseptic conditions to obtain viable and pathogen-free plantlets ( Bhojwani and Razdan, 1986 ; Morel, 1960 ). The technique was

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Yujie Yang, Donglin Zhang, Zhihui Li, Xiaoling Jin, and Jinying Dong

low germination rate and long germination time. It usually takes 2–3 years to overcome the double dormancy of the hard, impermeable seedcoat and immature embryos ( Dirr and Heuser, 2006 ; Hu et al., 1979 ). Pretreatment at room temperature for 2

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Josephina G. Niederwieser, H.A. van de Venter, and P.J. Robbertse

Techniques are described to determine whether embryos are formed in ovules of incompatible crosses between Ornithogalum (L.) plants, and to rescue embryos in cases where the development of embryos is halted following fertilization. By using Herr's clearing liquid, it can be ascertained within 5 hours whether hybrid embryos have been formed. Such embryos can be rescued by culturing them in ovulo on basal medium containing 70 g sucrose/liter and no added growth regulators. The embryos' requirement for sucrose changes as they develop; therefore, cultured ovules are transferred after 14 days to a medium containing 10 g sucrose/liter, where germination occurs.

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Hector E. Pérez

impermeability may be due to multiple layers of tightly spaced, thick-walled cells in the pericarp and testa, the presence of waxes, lignins, and pectins, or a combination of these factors. Seeds with physiological dormancy possess embryos that cannot generate

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Juan Bernardo Pérez-Hernández and María José Grajal-Martín

less than 1% ( Usman et al., 2001 ); and 3) severe natural fruit drop that causes premature loss of many of the scarce fruits derived from putative successful hand crosses ( Bally et al., 2009 ). Therefore, in vitro culture of immature embryos has been

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Yehoshua Saranga, David Rhodes, and Jules Janick

Abbreviations: EPM, embryo production medium; GABA, γ -aminobutyrate; PAR, photosynthetically active radiation. Journal paper no. 12,636 of the Purdue Univ. Agricultural Experiment Station. We thank A. Altman, Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew Univ. of