effects of elevated CO 2 on drought tolerance of plants are mainly the result of the reduction in water use as the result of CO 2 induction of stomatal closure and promotion of photosynthesis ( Kirkham, 2011 ; Wullschleger et al., 2002 ). The promotive
Yajun Chen, Jingjin Yu, and Bingru Huang
Israel Weiss, Yosef Mizrahi, and Eran Raveh
% to 40% ( Kimball, 1983 ), whereas in C 4 photosynthetic pathway plants, the effect is less marked, being about 10% ( Newton, 1991 ). Studies on the response of CAM plants to elevated CO 2 are far more limited than those on C 3 and C 4 plants
The objectives of these greenhouse experiments were to determine the effects of elevated CO2 on growth, mineral nutrition, and gas exchange physiology of seedlings of four commercial Citrus rootstocks. We grew well-watered and fertilized seedlings of `Volkamer' lemon (VL), `Cleopatra' mandarin (CL), `Swingle' citrumelo (SW), and `Troyer' citrange (TC) cultivars (in decreasing order of vigor) in unshaded, air-conditioned greenhouses at ambient CO2 (350 μmol/mol) or 2x ambient CO2 for 5 months. CL was the smallest cultivar, had the lowest root/shoot (r/s) ratio,and lowest rates of CO2 assimilation (A) of leaves, transpiration (E), and water-use efficiency, (A/E). Overall, daily whole-plant water use was correlated with single-leaf E. Elevated CO2 increased both shoot and root growth similarly; therefore, r/s was not affected. Elevated CO2 increased A, leaf dry wt/area, and leaf C, but decreased transpiration and leaf N so that leaf C/N, A/N, and A/E all increased. Although plant size of the four cultivars ranked similarly at both ambient and high CO2, the more-vigorous cultivars grew proportionately more at high CO2 than the less-vigorous cultivars. Growing cultivars at elevated CO2 can yield insights into mechanisms determining vigor and relationships between A and plant growth.
Qi-yuan Pan and Bruno Quebedeaux
Apple and many other Rosaceae plants translocate sucrose as well as sorbitol. How photosynthates are partitioned between sorbitol and sucrose in the Rosaceae is not understood. This study was designed to examine the effects of elevated air CO2 on partitioning of sorbitol and other soluble sugars in sink and source apple leaves. Young `Gala' apple plants were exposed to the ambient air and 700, 1000, and 1600 μl·liter–1 of CO2 for 8 days under a light intensity of 928 μmol·m–2·s–1 with a 14-h day/10-h night cycle. Sorbitol, sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentration in sink and source leaves were determined by HPLC analysis. In source leaves, sorbitol was significantly increased, while sucrose was decreased as the air CO2 was elevated from 400 to 1600 μl·liter–1. The sorbitol/sucrose ratio varied from 1.31 in air and 2.26 at 1600 μl·liter–1 of CO2. In sink leaves, sorbitol concentration did not vary across the four CO2 levels; however, sucrose was higher at the three super-atmospheric CO2 levels. Our results suggest that increased photosynthesis via elevated CO2 favors photosynthate partitioning into sorbitol rather than sucrose. A mechanism for regulating this partitioning will be discussed.
R.J. Bender and J.K. Brecht
Mangoes for long-distance markets are harvested at the mature-green stage and shipped in refrigerated containers. Shipment under controlled atmosphere is still tentative, and the CO2 concentrations used are relatively low (maximum 10%), although mangoes have been reported as being less-sensitive to elevated CO2 than other tropical fruits. In the present study, CO2 concentrations of 10%, 15%, 25%, 35%, and 45% combined with 5% O2 were used to store mangoes. Mature-green `Tommy Atkins' were stored for 21 days at 12C, followed by air storage at 20C for 5 days. Tree-ripe mangoes were stored at 8 or 12C under the same conditions. Ethanol production rates increased along with increasing CO2 concentrations. However, only 35% and 45% CO2 atmospheres inflicted damage. Color development was severely inhibited under those treatments. Lower CO2 treatments, up to 25% in the storage atmosphere, inhibited skin color development and ethylene biosynthesis but, after 5 days in air at 20C, skin color and ethylene production reached control levels. Fruit flesh firmness did not differ among treatments at 12C. Tree ripe mangoes stored in CA at 8C were only significantly firmer than control fruit at transfer from CA to air.
R.M. Wheeler, C.L. Mackowiak, N.C. Yorio, L.M. Ruffe, and G.W. Stutte
Radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Giant White Globe) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Waldmann's Green) plants were grown for 25 days in growth chambers at 23 °C, ≈300 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPF, and 18/6 photoperiod, and four CO2 concentrations: 400, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 μmol·mol-1. Average total dry mass (g/plant) at the 400, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 μmol·mol-1 treatments were 6.4, 7.2, 5.9, and 5.0 for radish and 4.2, 6.2, 6.6, and 4.0 for lettuce. Each species showed an expected increase in yield as CO2 was elevated from 400 to 1000 μmol·mol-1, but super-elevating the CO2 to 10,000 μmol·mol-1 resulted in suboptimal growth. In addition, many radish leaves showed necrotic lesions at 10,000 μmol·mol-1 by 17 days and at 5000 μmol·mol-1 by 20 days. These results are consistent with preliminary tests in which radish cvs. Cherry Belle, Giant White Globe, and Early Scarlet Globe were grown for 16 days at 400, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 μmol·mol-1. In that study, `Giant White Globe' produced the greatest total dry mass at 1000 (3.0 g/plant) and 5000 μmol·mol-1 (3.0 g/plant), and the least at 10,000 μmol·mol-1 (2.2 g/plant). `Early Scarlet Globe' followed a similar trend, but `Cherry Belle' showed little difference among CO2 treatments. Results suggest that super-elevated CO2 can depress growth of some species, and that sensitivities can vary among genotypes.
J.C. Melgar, J. Dunlop, J.P. Syvertsen*, and F. García-Sánchez
Physiological responses of olive cuttings of `Koroneiki' and `Picual' (Olea europaea L.) to zero or high salinity (NaCl 100 mmol·L-1) and to ambient CO2 (380 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO2 concentration were studied in sand culture in greenhouses. Growth parameters, net gas exchange of leaves and leaf chloride concentration were measured after two months of treatment. `Koroneiki' had significantly greater shoot growth and net assimilation of CO2 (Ac) at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2 but this difference disappeared under salt stress. Growth and Ac of `Picual' did not respond to elevated CO2 regardless of salinity treatment. Stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration were lower at elevated CO2 such that leaf water use efficiency increased at elevated CO2 in both cultivars regardless of saline treatment. The saline treatment increased leaf chloride (Cl) concentration and reduced growth and net gas exchange responses in both cultivars. There was no difference in leaf Cl accumulation between the two varieties. At high salinity, elevated CO2 had little effect on leaf Cl implying that at least in `Koroneiki', Cl accumulation was not closely linked to water uptake.
Eduardo L. Kerbel, Adel A. Kader, and Roger J. Romani
Suspension-cultured `Passe Crassane' pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) cells in aging media were ventilated with air or air + 20% CO2 for 4 days at 26C. Cells exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited reduced respiration (02 consumption). Ethylene production of both air and CO2-treated cells also declined to barely discernible levels by day 3. Fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) accumulated, while levels of fructose l,6-bisphosphate (F1, 6-P2), and activities of ATP and PPi phosphofructokinases (PFK and PFP) declined in response to elevated CO2. These results indicate an inhibitory effect of CO2 at the site of action of both phosphofructokinases in the glycolytic pathway, which could account, at least in part, for the observed reduction in respiration. The responses to elevated CO2 levels of the cell suspension system and intact pear fruit ventilated with air + 10% CO2 are compared, revealing a close similarity.
J.P. Syvertsen, L.S. Lee, and J.W Grosser
Diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Citrus L. rootstock cultivars were grown at elevated CO2 to obtain insights into limitations on growth and net gas exchange that have been associated with tetraploidy. Well-nourished 2x and 4x seedlings of `Volkamer' lemon (Volk, C. volkameriana Ten & Pasq.), `Troyer' citrange [Troy, C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] and `Cleopatra' mandarin (Cleo, C. reticulata Blanco.), were grown in greenhouses at either ambient or twice ambient CO2 for 4 months. Plant growth, water relations, mineral nutrition, and net gas exchange characteristics of leaves were measured. Most 4x plants were smaller and had lower rates of whole plant transpiration but shorter fibrous roots than 2x plants. Fibrous roots of 4x were thicker than 2x roots as indicated by a lower specific root length (SRL) in 4x than in 2x roots. Root hydraulic conductivity was correlated to total plant growth but there were no effects of CO2 or ploidy on root conductivity. Tetraploid leaves had lower N concentrations than 2x leaves when expressed on a dry weight basis but these differences disappeared when N concentration was expressed on an leaf area basis because 4x leaves had more leaf dry weight per area (LDW/a) than 2x leaves. Plant growth was greater and SRL was lower at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2. LDW concentrations of N, P, and K were lower at elevated CO2 than at ambient apparently due to a growth dilution effect. LDW/a, net CO2 assimilation (ACO2), and leaf water use efficiency were greater at elevated CO2 than at ambient. Overall, there was no effect of ploidy on ACO2 but 4x Volk and Troy had lower rates of ACO2 than their 2x at elevated CO2. Net gas exchange of tetraploid leaves was less responsive to elevated CO2 than 2x leaves. The low SRL of tetraploids was correlated with low whole plant transpiration rates and low leaf area-based N concentrations, which may be operative in determining the growth characteristics associated with tetraploidy.
John L. Jifon and David W. Wolfe
The widely observed reduction in photosynthetic (Pn) capacity following long-term exposure to elevated CO2 is believed to result from an imbalance in source–sink status. We hypothesized that nitrogen fixation in root nodules would provide a strong sink for photosynthate and lead to a sustained positive photosynthetic response to elevated CO2. Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv Redkloud) were grown in poly chambers at one of four combinations of temperature (35/21 or 26/15°C day/night), and CO2 (350 or 700 ppm). Half the plants in each chamber were inoculated with Rhizobium and fertilized with a complete nutrient solution lacking nitrogen; control plants received a similar solution with nitrogen. Total nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay; 8 weeks after planting) of excised whole root systems was stimulated (up to 4-fold) by elevated CO2, but this response was only significant for 26/15°C-grown plants. Inoculated plants also accumulated more biomass (10%) than control plants. Nodule abundance and size were significantly higher in high CO2-grown plants than ambient CO2 plants, but the Pn capacity of inoculated plants was only slightly greater than that of control plants. Averaged across other treatments, high CO2-grown plants accumulated more biomass (42%) and had higher Pn rates (50%) than ambient CO2 plants. Treatment effects on leaf carbohydrate levels and Pn acclimation to CO2 were not consistent. The results suggest that the higher total nodule activity was due to increased nodule number and size in proportion with increased plant size under high CO2, rather than an increase in nitrogenase activity per nodule. It is also evident that plants with symbiotic nitrogen fixation capability can benefit from elevated CO2, even with reduced input of inorganic nitrogen.