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Teresa Olczyk, Juanita Popenoe, Ed Skvarch, and Alejandro Bolques

nursery sales, followed by tropical foliage at 14% of total sales, and deciduous trees at 13% of total sales in 2005, the peak economy year ( Hodges and Haydu, 2005 ). With the collapse of the housing market in 2008–09, landscape plant sales plummeted

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David M. Eissenstat, James H. Graham, James P. Syvertsen, and Diana L. Drouillard

The effects of phosphorus (P) and of the mycorrhizal (M) fungus, Glomus intraradix, on the carbon (C) economy of sour orange (citrus aurantium L.) were determined during and following active M colonization. There were four treatments: mycorrhizal seedlings grown at standard-strength P (M1) and nonmycorrhizal (NM) plants grown at 1, 2 and 5 times standard-strength P (NM1, NM2 and NM5). Mycorrhizal colonization, tissue dry mass, P content, root length, leaf area, 14C partitioning and rate of c assimilation (A) were determined in five whole-plant harvests from 6 to 15 wks of age. In contrast to the effects of P nutrition on C economy in sour orange, M effects were generally subtle. Mycorrhizae increased the root biomass fraction, the root length/leaf area ratio, and the percent of 14C recovered from belowground components. Mycorrhizal plants had a higher percentage of belowground 14C in the respiration and soil fractions than did NM plants of equivalent P status. Mycorrhizal plants tended to have enhanced A at 8 wks but not at 7 or 12 wks. This temporarily enhanced A of M plants did not fully compensate for their greater belowground C expenditure, as suggested by apparently lower relative growth rates of M than NM plants of equivalent P status. Problems of interpreting the dynamic effects of mycorrhizae on C economy that are independent of p nutrition are discussed.

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Keith T. Birkhold, Karen E. Koch, and Rebecca L. Darnell

Carbon dioxide exchange, dry weight, C, and N content of `Bonita' and `Climax' blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) fruit were measured from anthesis through fruit ripening to quantify developmental changes in amounts of imported C and N required for fruit development. Net photosynthesis occurred in fruit of both rabbiteye cultivars from petal fall through color break. During this time, fruit net photosynthesis declined from 16 μmol CO2/g fresh weight (FW) per hour for `Bonita' and 22 μmol CO2/g FW per hour for `Climax' to 0.2 μmol CO2/g FW per hour for both. Dark respiration for both cultivars declined following petal fall from 16 μmol CO2/g FW per hour to 3 μmol CO2/g FW per hour before increasing at fruit ripening to 9 μmol CO2/g FW per hour. Fruit C content was constant at 0.43 mg C/mg dry weight (DW) throughout development, while N content declined from 0.05 mg N/mg DW at petal fall to 0.01 mg N/mg DW at ripeness. DW accumulation and respiration accounted for 63% and 37%, respectively, of the total C requirement for fruit development. Fruit photosynthesis was estimated to contribute 15% of the total C required for fruit development in both cultivars; however, fruit photosynthesis supplied 50% of the C required during the first 10 days after bloom and 85% during the 5 days after petal fall. This large, early contribution of C from fruit photosynthesis may aid in the establishment of fruit until the current season's vegetative growth can supplement plant carbohydrate reserves in providing C for fruit development.

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E.C. Boehm, T.D. Davis, and J.O. Kuti

Relative water usage of four species of container-grown woody ornamental shrubs (Buxus japonica (Japenese boxwood), Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas sage), Ligustrum japonica (ligustrum) and Pittosporum tobira wheeleri (dwarf) pittosporurm)), normally used for home landscaping in south Texas, were evaluated by comparing water consumption and frequency of watering with growth rates and horticultural quality after six months growth in containers. Growth rates were determined by the difference in plant height and leaf area from the control unwatered plants and were used to characterize the suitability of ornamental shrubs for xeric landscapes. While frequency of watering had no significant effects on plant height, only ligustrum and dwarf pittosporum plants watered on weekly basis showed positive change in leaf area. There was considerable leaf regrowth in Texas sage plants after initial leaf loss. Of all the shrubs tested, dwarf pittosporum plants watered biweekly used less water to maintain their horticultural quality.

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Arthur A. Schaffer, Marina Petreikov, Daphne Miron, Miriam Fogelman, Moshe Spiegelman, Zecharia Bnei-Moshe, Shmuel Shen, David Granot, Rivka Hadas, Nir Dai, Moshe Bar, Michael Friedman, Meir Pilowsky, Nehama Gilboa, and Leah Chen

88 Colloquium 2 (Abstr. 706–713) The Carbohydrate Economy of Horticultural Crops

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Edward A. Evans, Jonathan Crane, Alan Hodges, and Jason L. Osborne

seriously threatened ( Fraedrich et al., 2008 ; Mayfield, 2007 ). The demise of the avocado industry in Florida could have catastrophic consequences for the surrounding regional and local economies. Besides direct losses to the state's avocado industry in

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Suzette P. Galinato, R. Karina Gallardo, David M. Granatstein, and Mike Willett

negatively affect the apple industry and the state’s economy. The apple industry is of major economic importance to Washington State, representing the highest sales value of all crops. The state is the largest national producer (by volume and by value) of

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Alan W. Hodges, Charles R. Hall, Marco A. Palma, and Hayk Khachatryan

centers, home stores, mass merchandisers with lawn/garden departments, brokers and rewholesale distribution centers, and allied trade suppliers of inputs to the industry. The green industry has historically been a fast-growing segment of the U.S. economy

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Stephanie J. Walker and Paul A. Funk

and processing of chile is an integral contributor to the state’s economy ( Hall and Skaggs, 2003 ). The first New Mexican-type chile, ‘New Mexico No. 9’, was officially released in 1921 from the New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts