Leading economic index 26 June 2009 < http://www.conference-board.org/economics/bci/press_archive.cfm?cid=1 >. The Conference Board 2009b Consumer confidence index 26 June 2009 < http://www.conference-board.org/economics/ConsumerConfidence.cfm >. U
and economics data are lacking. Stakeholders need additional information about winter vegetable production in high tunnels. High tunnels are generally tall enough to walk in, whereas low tunnels are designed to cover the crop itself and are typically 1
Many producers who have used conventional production methods for vegetables, and who want to convert to organic production, will have to pass through a 3-year transition period before their land can be qualified for organic certification. This transition can produce unique challenges. Use of several amendments has received interest for inclusion in organic production. How these affect vegetable production during the transition period was examined. Land was taken from perennial pasture and converted to production of the vegetables: bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), cv. Jupiter; processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), cv. Earli Pik; and sweet corn (Zea mays L.), cv. Incredible (se endosperm genotype) using organic materials and methods with comparison made to production using conventional methods. Conventional and transition to organic portions of the field were separated by 25 m with the buffer zone planted with the same sweet corn cultivar used in the experimental plots and minimally maintained by addition of organic fertilizer. To the organic portion of the field, three levels of humates (0, 112, and 224 kg·ha–1) and three levels of corn gluten meal (0, 448, and 896 kg·ha–1) were applied in nine combinations. Yields for all crops were determined for all years. In the first year, bell pepper yields for plants under conventional production were higher than for the plants in the transition plots. In the remaining 2 years, bell pepper yields were similar under the two production systems. In the first 2 years, cucumber yields for plants under conventional production were higher than for the plants under transition to organic production. In the last year, cucumber yields were similar under the two production systems. In all years, sweet corn yields for plants under conventional production were higher than for plants under transition to organic production. Humates and corn gluten meal did not benefit yields of crops. An economic analysis comparing yields, prices, and costs of production of the crops under conventional and the transition to organic indicated that conventional practices generally provided more net revenue than did transition to organic production. Net revenue for the three species under the transition to organic for the 3 years was $2749 for three hectares. Net revenue for the three crops under conventional production for 3 years was $61,821, a difference of $59,072. Costs, yield, and prices will have to be considered when decisions are made concerning the adoption of organic practices.
were at a similar stage of crowding. The second aim was to examine the effects of manual and mechanical pruning on yield, nut characteristics, tree size, and economics in crowded orchards. Three pruning experiments were conducted. In the first
management using hand labor. Yield, fruit growth, fruit composition, wine composition, wine sensory analysis, and economics of mechanization using the M-O System were evaluated for hand- and machine-farmed grapes. Materials and methods Vineyard. The
Crop development rates, yields and production economics for muskmelon (Cucumis melo), pepper (Capsicum annuum) and tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum) grown in high tunnels [4.3 m wid × 2.5 m high × 29 m long (14 × 8 × 96 ft)] were compared to standard low tunnels over several cropping seasons in a temperate production area. The polyethylene-covered high tunnels protect several rows of crop for the duration of the cropping season. Air temperatures in the high tunnels were controlled by raising the sides of the tunnel. Low tunnels cover only a single row and must be removed soon after the crop is established to prevent overcrowding or overheating. When the low tunnels were in place, rates of accumulation of growing-degree days (GDDs) and early crop growth were comparable in the two tunnel systems. However, once the low tunnels were removed, the accumulation of GDDs in the high tunnels exceeded the standard system. The crops in the high tunnels matured 1 to 2 weeks earlier and produced substantially greater fruit yields before frost than in the low tunnel treatments. The high tunnels provided little frost protection and were of limited utility for extension of the growing season. The high tunnels were much more costly to purchase and construct than the low tunnels but were durable enough to be used for multiple cropping seasons. Based on wholesale commodity prices, it would take 2 to 5 years for the enhanced gross returns obtained with the high tunnels to cover their higher capital costs.
Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) crops were transplanted in two seasons in central Florida with bare-root and containerized (plug) plants under three transplant establishment-period irrigation methods to evaluate crop fruiting responses and production economics associated with the various establishment systems. Irrigation was not required to establish plug transplants in the field. Early (first 2 months) fruit yield with nonirrigated plug plants was greater than early yield with sprinkler-irrigated bare-root plants (the current commercial system) in one of two seasons and equal in a second season. Total-season yields were similar in each season between the two establishment systems. Large or medium plug plants led to greatest early fruit yields in one season while large plug plants resulted in greatest early yield in a second season. Total yield was greatest with medium plants in one season and large plants in another season. The extra cost for the plug plant system was $1853/acre. In one out of two seasons there was increased net income amounting to $1142/acre due to greater early yield associated with the plug plant cultural system. Strawberry plug transplants showed promise for earlier and more profitable crops in addition to substantial savings in water used for plant establishment in the field. The ability to establish strawberry crops without irrigation will be important in areas where growers are required to reduce farm water consumption.
crisis do not likely contribute to the 2007–08 reduction in seed price. The relationship between economics and conservation is well established, mostly for animal poaching (e.g., Bulte and van Kooten, 1999 ). For plants, the literature is largely focused