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Yanjun Guo, Terri Starman, and Charles Hall

5 inches or larger increased, and those sold in smaller containers or flats were reduced compared with the previous year ( USDA, 2016 ). Considering the economic value of potted bedding plants and the economic and environmental needs to reduce

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Yanjun Guo, Terri Starman, and Charles Hall

Potted poinsettias are one of the most important greenhouse ornamental crops in the United States, with wholesale value of $140 million in the top 15 states. The potted poinsettia was ranked number two among potted plants for its economic value and

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Yanjun Guo, Terri Starman, and Charles Hall

economic value. Literature Cited Alem, P. Thomas, P. van Iersel, M. 2013 Irrigation volume and fertilizer concentration effects on leaching and growth of petunia Acta Hort. 1034 143 148 Alem, P. Thomas, P.A. van Iersel, M.W. 2015 Controlled water deficit as

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A.H.D. Francesconi, C.B. Watkins, A.N. Lakso, J.P. Nyrop, J. Barnard, and S.S. Denning

Fruit maturity, quality, calcium concentration and economic value of `Starkrimson Delicious' (Malus domestica Borkh.) apples, under a range of crop levels and European red mite [Panonychus ulmi (Koch)] cumulative mite-days (CMD), were best explained by local surface regression models involving CMD and crop load. Fruit from trees with low CMD and a light crop (125 fruit/tree, about 20 t/ha) were the most mature at harvest. Those fruit had higher ethylene concentrations, starch pattern indices, soluble solids concentrations, and watercore incidence at harvest than fruit from trees with low CMD and a normal crop (300 fruit/tree, about 40 t/ha), or with high CMD at any crop level. Those fruit also had higher incidences of watercore and internal breakdown after 4 months of cold storage. Calcium concentrations in fruit increased as crop load and CMD increased. Whole-canopy net CO2 exchange rate per fruit related better to fruit quality and calcium concentrations than either crop load or CMD alone, but was always a much worse predictor than local surface regressions. Low CMD and normally cropped trees had the highest crop value; lightly cropped trees had an intermediate crop value; while high CMD and normally cropped trees had the lowest crop economic value. Crop load should be considered when defining action thresholds for mites, and harvest schedules for apples should reflect crop load and mite populations on apple trees.

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Edmund J. Ogbuchiekwe and Milton E. McGiffen Jr.

Economic analyses compared the returns of weed control methods for drip and sprinkler irrigated celery (Apium graveolens L. `Sonora'). The nine treatments included an untreated control, cultivation as needed for weed control, a pre-emergent herbicide (trifluralin), and six post-emergent herbicides. The effect of each treatment on weed control, yield, crop value, cost of control, costs for additional hand-weeding, net return, and dollar investment (marginal rate of return) was determined. The treatments that reduced weed populations under drip and sprinkler irrigation also increased yield, net returns, and rate of returns. Effective weed control reduced the additional costs of hand-hoeing the weeds not killed by herbicides, resulting in greater net return. The net returns of weed control were even greater when celery was drip irrigated than when sprinklers were used. In 1998, the sprinkler irrigated field returned $1148 to $3921/ha, compared with -$5984 for the untreated control. Net returns for drip irrigation were much higher, ranging from $3904 to $9187/ha compared with -$8320 for the untreated control. Net returns were also higher in 1999, ranging from $2466 to $5389 when weeds were controlled compared with a net loss of $5710 for the untreated control in the sprinkler irrigated field. The returns on the drip-irrigated field were much higher, from $6481 to $8920 when weeds were controlled, compared with -$8046 for the untreated control. The associated returns for every dollar invested (marginal rate of return) in the non-dominated treatment (more return and lower cost) ranged from 52% to 156% for sprinkler irrigation, and 59% to 144% for drip irrigation in 1998. In 1999, the rate of return for each dollar invested ranged from 104% to 324% for sprinkler and 2.4% to 321% for drip irrigated fields.

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Carl E. Bell, Brent E. Boutwell, Edmund J. Ogbuchiekwe, and Milton E. McGiffen Jr.

Application of linuron was compared with hand-weeding and a nontreated control (= control) for weed control in carrots. Linuron, applied pre- or postemergent, was slightly less effective than the 100% weed control obtained by hand-weeding. Carrot yields were similar for all treatments, and were at least six times as great as in the control. In 1996, linuron treatments returned net profits ranging from $980 to $1887 per ha, compared to $740 for hand-weeding and -$2975 for the control. In 1997, return on linuron treatments was greater, ranging from $5326 to $6426, compared with $2852 for hand-weeding. Marginal rates of return ranged from 21% to 86% in 1996. In 1997, rates of return for every dollar invested in linuron were over 59%. Chemical name used: N′-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methoxy-N-methylurea (linuron).

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Carl E. Bell, Brent E. Boutwell, Edmund J. Ogbuchiekwe, and Milton E. McGiffen Jr.

Application of linuron was compared with hand-weeding and a nontreated control (= control) for weed control in carrots. Linuron, applied pre- or postemergent, was slightly less effective than the 100% weed control obtained by hand-weeding. Carrot yields were similar for all treatments, and were at least six times as great as in the control. In 1996, linuron treatments returned net profits ranging from $980 to $1887 per ha, compared to $740 for hand-weeding and - $2975 for the control. In 1997, return on linuron treatments was greater, ranging from $5326 to $6426, compared with $2852 for hand-weeding. Marginal rates of return ranged from 21% to 86% in 1996. In 1997, rates of return for every dollar invested in linuron were over 59%. Chemical name used: N′-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methoxy-N-methylurea (linuron).

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Choong-Ki Lee, Sin-Ae Park, James W. Mjelde, Tae-Kyun Kim, and Jae-Hwan Cho

medical treatments, recreation, and experiential activities. Busan government officials are concerned with the economic value of the HT site as they evaluate the costs and benefits from establishing the site. This study's objective is to estimate the WTP

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Fotios Bletsos, Costas Thanassoulopoulos, and Demetrios Roupakias

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seedlings (`Tsakoniki') were grafted by hand on the Verticillium dahliae Kleb. resistant wild species Solanum torvum Sw. (GST) and Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (GSS). Grafted and nongrafted eggplants were transplanted to a fumigated soil with methyl bromide and to infested soil with microsclerotia of V. dahliae. Grafted plants were more vigorous, as measured by plant height, main stem diameter, and root system weight, than the nongrafted `Tsakoniki'. This resulted in an increased early production (GST, 45.5%; GSS, 18.4%) and late production (GST, 69.3%; GSS, 59.2%) as compared to the noninfected controls. The mean yield reduction (over years) in early production caused by the disease, as compared to the controls grown in fumigated soil, was 29.4%, 36.6%, and 77.9% for eggplant grafted on S. torvum, S. sisymbriifolium, and nongrafted plants, respectively. This yield reduction in total production was 6.9%, 20.5%, and 56.8%, respectively. The disease incidence in ungrafted plants was 96% and 100% during early and late harvest periods. In contrast, the disease incidence in grafted plants was significantly lower, averaging 28.1% (GST) and 52.6% (GSS) in early production, and 37.6% and 79.3%, respectively, in late production. Solanum torvum was found more resistant than S. sisymbriifolium, because grafted infected plants developed mild symptoms, as indicated by significantly lower leaf symptom index (average value 1.2 and 2.22) and disease index (average value 1.55 and 3.38), respectively. In conclusion, grafting of eggplant on either wild species had positive effects on growth, production, and verticillium wilt control.

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Yuxin Chen, Zishuo Zhang, Kexin Wang, Lijin Ou, and Yan Ao