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Solveig J. Hanson and Irwin L. Goldman

flavor: geosmin, sucrose, oxalate, and saponins. Earthy aroma, conferred by the volatile terpenoid geosmin ( Gerber, 1967 ), is identified as the signature flavor of table beet ( Goldman and Navazio, 2003 ) but can be unpalatable in excess ( Tyler et al

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Lynn Maher and Irwin L. Goldman

The aromatic earthy compound geosmin has a characteristic flavor and scent to which humans are remarkably sensitive. The detection rate for geosmin and another musty-earthy compound, 2-methylisoborneol, is as low as 6–10 ng·L −1 ( Rashash et al

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Andrew G. Reynolds, Margaret Cliff, Douglas A. Wardle and Marjorie King

Eighty-five cultivars, selections and clones from European winegrape (Vitis spp.) breeding and selection programs were evaluated between 1993 and 1995 in a randomized complete-block experiment. These included Vitis vinifera clones from France as well as Freiburg, Geisenheim, and Weinsberg, Germany. Small yield and fruit composition differences were found amongst the 'Chardonnay' clones. The standard Prosser clone produced wines with highest earthy aroma and acidity and with lowest perfumy aroma, body and finish; Dijon clones 76 and 96 were most perfumy and least vegetal. `Pinot noir' clones also differed somewhat in terms of yield and fruit composition; `Samtröt', `Gamay Beaujolais', and clone Q1342-01 were amongst the most highly colored clones. These clones also tended to have the most intense berry and currant aromas as well as berry, cherry, and currant flavors. These aforementioned clones appear to be highly adaptable to viticultural regions where low heat units during fruit maturation presently limit industry growth.

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L.A. Gills, A.V.A. Resurreccion, W.C. Hurst, A.E. Reynolds and S.C. Phatak

Descriptive analysis was used to compare sensory color, flavor, and textural attributes of Georgia-grown carrots. The relation between °Brix, total sugar, and intensity perception of sweetness was also studied. Significant differences existed in the perception of sweet taste and of color, and in levels of °Brix and percentage of sugar among all cultivars, but perceived intensity of sweetness was not related to the levels of °Brix or percentage of sugar. No significant differences were found among cultivars in harsh carroty, green, astringent, and earthy flavors, and in the perception of sour taste. Intensity ratings for perceived hardness were nonsignificant in either study. Differences in sensory profiles existed among all cultivars, but no trend was evident in the relation of sweetness to harsh flavor.

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J. Kays and Wayne J. McLaurin

Flavor is a primary trait in the selection of foods. The role of flavor in acceptance of the sweetpotato, flavors status as a selection trait in existing breeding programs, and our current understanding of the flavor chemistry of the sweetpotato was reviewed. The sweetpotato, unlike most staple crops, has a very distinct and dominant flavor. In typical breeding programs, however, flavor is generally one of the last traits screened. A tremendous diversity and range of flavors has been reported within the sweetpotato germplasm (e.g., acidic, bland, baked potato, boiled potato. carrot, chalky, chemical, citrus, earthy, Ipomoeo/terpene, lemon, musty, pumpkin, salty, squash (titer type), starchy, sweet, sweetpotato (traditional), terpene, and turnip. These results indicate that the genetic diversity for flavor present in sweetpotato germplasm will allow making substantial changes in the flavor of new cultivars, thus potentially opening previously unexploited or under-exploited markets. Implementation involves solving two primary problems: 1) identification of desirable flavor ideotypes; and development of procedures that allow maximizing the selection of specific flavor types.

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Travis Robert Alexander, Carolyn F. Ross, Emily A. Walsh and Carol A. Miles

responses of aroma (apple, caramel, citrus, earthy, ethanol, floral, grassy, spicy, woody, and yeasty) were evaluated. A significant ( P < 0.05) interaction of harvest method and year of harvest was observed for the aroma responses of earthy, ethanol, spicy

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Barbara J. Daniels-Lake, Robert K. Prange, Sonia O. Gaul, Kenneth B. McRae, Roberto de Antueno and David McLachlan

, personal communication) that are not naturally produced by potato tubers ( Buttery and Ling, 1973 ; Buttery et al., 1970 ; Coleman et al., 1981 ). Objectionable musty or earthy flavors and odors occasionally affect various food commodities and can cause

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Molly Felts, Renee T. Threlfall, John R. Clark and Margaret L. Worthington

(grape/overall, grape/muscadine, grape/other, fruity, floral, earthy/dirty, mold/mildew, green/unripe, and overripe) of five whole, intact berries ( Table 3 ). All of the aroma attributes were less than 6.5 on the 15-point scale, indicating low-mid aroma

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`Pinot noir' clones. The “Prosser clone” of `Chardonnay' produced wines with highest earthy aroma and acidity and lowest perfumy aroma, body, and finish. Dijon clones 76 and 96 were most perfumy and least vegetal. `Pinot noir' clones `Samtröt,' `Gamay

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Molly Felts, Renee T. Threlfall and Margaret L. Worthington

training, the 10 trained panelists created a lexicon of descriptive sensory terms using Arkansas-grown peaches and nectarines ( Table 2 ). Within each category, multiple attributes were evaluated. The panelists evaluated aroma (fruity/peach, earthy