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Mengmeng Zhang, He Huang, Qing Wang and Silan Dai

different flowering times have been obtained ( Anderson and Ascher, 2016 ), the number of early-flowering multiflora chrysanthemum cultivars is still limited ( Lim et al., 2012 , 2014 ). In particular, other ornamental traits of some cultivars tend to

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Xiao-Juan Wei, Jinlin Ma, Kun Wang, Xiao-Jing Liang, Jin-Xuan Lan, Yue-Juan Li, Kai-Xiang Li and Haiying Liang

state-level natural reserve, which is in the primary distribution areas of the species, raw materials for manufacturing camellia products are mainly from cultivated plants. Therefore, there is strong interest in inducing early flowering in golden

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Dan E. Parfitt, Craig E. Kallsen and Joe Maranto

`Randy' is an early flowering male pistachio that will be used as a pollenizer for `West Hills' and `Lost Hills'. It has excellent flowering synchrony with `West Hills' and `Lost Hills' and can be used to cover the earlier part of the `Kerman' flowering period during seasons in which `Kerman' flowering is extended. This generally occurs during seasons of low chill, which are expected to become more frequent in the future due to continued global warming. `Peters', the standard male used to pollenize `Kerman', often flowers too late to cover the earlier part of the `Kerman' bloom period under these conditions or to serve as an effective pollenizer for the new female cultivars. `Randy' was selected for high pollen viability, pollen durability, and a high level of pollen production (based on visual evaluation). `Randy' flowers 1–3 weeks earlier than `Peters', the standard pollenizer for `Kerman'.

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Yuan-Tsung Chang, Der-Ming Yeh and Wen-Ju Yang

from spring to summer in the lowlands of Taiwan or other subtropical areas. However, growers have been seeking early-flowering statice cultivars that will produce cut flowers in the winter when the price is higher. Mass selection is often applied in

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Xiao-Juan Wei, Jinlin Ma, Kai-Xiang Li, Xiao-Jing Liang and Haiying Liang

occurrence of precociously flowering Eucalyptus trees over that of either treatment applied alone ( Williams et al., 2003 ). Here, we report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ and urea doses can be a potential strategy to achieve early

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Todd C. Wehner

Most gynoecious hybrid cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in the U.S. require pollination for proper fruit set. Early flowering pollenizers may help yield, earliness, or quality. Two experiments were run to measure the value of early pollenizers using fields isolated from other cucumbers by at least 1 km. The first experiment used `Armstrong Early Cluster' and `Sumter' as the early and normal pollenizer, with 30 and 35 days to flower, respectively. Gy 2, Gy 3, Gy 4, and Gy 14 were used as the gynoecious pickling cucumbers. The experiment was run in 2 years (1994, 1995) and seven locations in North Carolina with two pollenizers and the four gynoecious inbreds. There were four replications of plots within each whole plot to help control variability inherent in an experiment where treatments are in separate fields. The second experiment had only 1 year (1996), but the same seven locations, four replications, and four gynoecious inbreds, but only one pollenizer (`Sumter') planted at the same time, or 2 weeks earlier than the gynoecious lines. Plots were harvested once when 30% of the fruits were >50 mm diameter. None of the differences in either experiment were significant (F-ratio test, 10% level). Therefore, it does not appear that use of early flowering pollenizers in blends with gynoecious pickling cucumbers will have a large effect on the yield, earliness, or internal quality of the crop.

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Inmaculada Moreno-Alías, Hava F. Rapoport, Rafael López, Lorenzo León and Raúl de la Rosa

In recent years, the juvenile period of olive seedlings has been reduced by diverse forcing and pruning-formation techniques, but it is still a major drawback for breeding. Plant height at the time when seedlings are transplanted to the field has been found effective for obtaining earlier flowering, but the value of this parameter varies widely among olive breeding programs. We evaluated different transplant dates, taking into account mean plant height and age, with the aim of determining the optimum parameters for achieving early flowering and easy plant management and, at the same time, for the early elimination of genotypes with a long juvenile period. A mean seedling height of ≈100 cm at the time of planting in the field provided the best results in terms of shortening the juvenile period and facilitating handling of the seedlings. For all dates tested, seedling height at transplanting was effective as a pre-selection criterion for the early elimination of genotypes with long juvenile periods, with slight improvement in effectiveness with advancing transplant date.

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Min-Li Liu, Ching-Hsiang Hsieh and Yun-Yang Chao

early flowering, strong vigor during summer, and a short fruit (length:width = 2:1) with white skin and a weight of 60–75 g. The crossing between the inbreds was performed in the net house of KDARES (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) in the autumn of 2008. Line trials

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Tracie K. Matsumoto

Flowering of Miltoniopsis orchids is influenced by a combination of cool temperatures and short photoperiod. To determine if application of plant growth regulators could promote flowering without the need for costly structural modification to control photoperiod or temperature, we used drenches of gibberellic acid (GA3) (2.5 or 5 mm), N6-benzyladenine (BA) (25 or 50 mm) alone or in combination. BA (25 or 50 mm) treatments promoted new vegetative shoots and decreased the number of plants with inflorescences compared to the untreated control plants. This reduction of flowering and increased vegetative shoot production was alleviated by the addition of GA3 in combination with BA. However, the number of plants with inflorescences remained less than the control. GA3 hastened Miltoniopsis inflorescence emergence during the first flowering season by 10.9 to 14.9 days for Bert Field `Eileen' and by 48.7 days for Rouge `Akatsuka'. The number of `Eileen' inflorescences produced per plant increased from 2.2 to 3.0 with 2.5 mm GA3 treatment. Flower deformities were not observed in the GA3 treated plants, and flower size and inflorescence length were unaffected by the GA3 treatment.